Intimate Partner Violence and Incident Depressive Symptoms and Suicide Attempts: A Systematic Review of Longitudinal Studies

London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.
PLoS Medicine (Impact Factor: 14.43). 05/2013; 10(5):e1001439. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001439
Source: PubMed


Depression and suicide are responsible for a substantial burden of disease globally. Evidence suggests that intimate partner violence (IPV) experience is associated with increased risk of depression, but also that people with mental disorders are at increased risk of violence. We aimed to investigate the extent to which IPV experience is associated with incident depression and suicide attempts, and vice versa, in both women and men.
We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies published before February 1, 2013. More than 22,000 records from 20 databases were searched for studies examining physical and/or sexual intimate partner or dating violence and symptoms of depression, diagnosed major depressive disorder, dysthymia, mild depression, or suicide attempts. Random effects meta-analyses were used to generate pooled odds ratios (ORs). Sixteen studies with 36,163 participants met our inclusion criteria. All studies included female participants; four studies also included male participants. Few controlled for key potential confounders other than demographics. All but one depression study measured only depressive symptoms. For women, there was clear evidence of an association between IPV and incident depressive symptoms, with 12 of 13 studies showing a positive direction of association and 11 reaching statistical significance; pooled OR from six studies = 1.97 (95% CI 1.56-2.48, I (2) = 50.4%, p heterogeneity = 0.073). There was also evidence of an association in the reverse direction between depressive symptoms and incident IPV (pooled OR from four studies = 1.93, 95% CI 1.51-2.48, I (2) = 0%, p = 0.481). IPV was also associated with incident suicide attempts. For men, evidence suggested that IPV was associated with incident depressive symptoms, but there was no clear evidence of an association between IPV and suicide attempts or depression and incident IPV.
In women, IPV was associated with incident depressive symptoms, and depressive symptoms with incident IPV. IPV was associated with incident suicide attempts. In men, few studies were conducted, but evidence suggested IPV was associated with incident depressive symptoms. There was no clear evidence of association with suicide attempts. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

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    • "Two outcomes that are of particular interest are PTSD and depressive symptomology, which are often reported as consequences of violence. Although PTSD and depression often seem to be related, with one condition tending to increase the risk of the other (Breslau, Davis, Peterson, & Schultz, 2000; Devries et al., 2013), scholarship suggests that PTSD and depression may be generated or maintained by disparate paths (Cascardi, O'Leary, & Schlee, 1999; Shalev et al., 1998). For instance, Cascardi et al. (1999) found that, among women exposed to IPV, although the frequency of severe abuse predicted both PTSD and depression, tactics of dominance and isolation more readily predicted PTSD. "
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    • "Sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) can have a profound and life-long impact on the mental health of survivors who are at increased risk of depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder (1–3). Children exposed to violence and abuse are at risk of experiencing or perpetrating violence as an adult (4–6). "
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