Article

Intimate Partner Violence and Incident Depressive Symptoms and Suicide Attempts: A Systematic Review of Longitudinal Studies

London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.
PLoS Medicine (Impact Factor: 14). 05/2013; 10(5):e1001439. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001439
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Depression and suicide are responsible for a substantial burden of disease globally. Evidence suggests that intimate partner violence (IPV) experience is associated with increased risk of depression, but also that people with mental disorders are at increased risk of violence. We aimed to investigate the extent to which IPV experience is associated with incident depression and suicide attempts, and vice versa, in both women and men.
We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies published before February 1, 2013. More than 22,000 records from 20 databases were searched for studies examining physical and/or sexual intimate partner or dating violence and symptoms of depression, diagnosed major depressive disorder, dysthymia, mild depression, or suicide attempts. Random effects meta-analyses were used to generate pooled odds ratios (ORs). Sixteen studies with 36,163 participants met our inclusion criteria. All studies included female participants; four studies also included male participants. Few controlled for key potential confounders other than demographics. All but one depression study measured only depressive symptoms. For women, there was clear evidence of an association between IPV and incident depressive symptoms, with 12 of 13 studies showing a positive direction of association and 11 reaching statistical significance; pooled OR from six studies = 1.97 (95% CI 1.56-2.48, I (2) = 50.4%, p heterogeneity = 0.073). There was also evidence of an association in the reverse direction between depressive symptoms and incident IPV (pooled OR from four studies = 1.93, 95% CI 1.51-2.48, I (2) = 0%, p = 0.481). IPV was also associated with incident suicide attempts. For men, evidence suggested that IPV was associated with incident depressive symptoms, but there was no clear evidence of an association between IPV and suicide attempts or depression and incident IPV.
In women, IPV was associated with incident depressive symptoms, and depressive symptoms with incident IPV. IPV was associated with incident suicide attempts. In men, few studies were conducted, but evidence suggested IPV was associated with incident depressive symptoms. There was no clear evidence of association with suicide attempts. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

Full-text

Available from: Loraine J Bacchus, May 28, 2015
1 Follower
 · 
103 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This research is an examination of the predictive validity of the Lethality Screen, a tool used in conjunction with the Lethality Assessment Program (LAP). This intimate partner violence (IPV) risk assessment is an 11-item version of the Danger Assessment (DA) that was designed to be user-friendly for first responders and to maximize sensitivity. Participants (N = 254) were recruited into the study at the scene of police-involved IPV incidents in one Southwestern state and subsequently participated in two structured telephone interviews approximately 7 months apart. These analyses provide evidence that the Lethality Screen has considerable sensitivity (92%-93%) and a high negative predictive value (93%-96%) for near lethal and severe violence. However, specificity was low (21%). The Lethality Screen also has good agreement with the DA and IPV survivors' perception of risk. The high sensitivity and low specificity should be considered carefully when determining whether the Lethality Screen is appropriate for particular areas of practice with IPV survivors and/or perpetrators. © The Author(s) 2015.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence 05/2015; DOI:10.1177/0886260515585540 · 1.64 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Most studies about the association between exposure to violence and higher psychological vulnerability have been cross-sectional in nature. Using longitudinal data from the Shelter, Health, and Drug Outcomes Among Women Study on 300 homeless or unstably housed women infected with or at risk of becoming infected with human immunodeficiency virus who were living in San Francisco, California, in 2008-2012, we examined the relationship between recent violent victimization and mental health status, mental health-related emergency department visits, and psychiatric hospitalization. We used generalized estimating equations to account for potentially confounding time-invariant and time-varying variables, including comorbid psychiatric conditions and lifetime history of child abuse. A total of 207 (69%) women experienced childhood abuse. The median number of psychiatric diagnoses per woman at baseline was 8 (interquartile range, 5-11). Recent exposure to violence was associated with lower mental health status (b = -1.85, 95% confidence interval: -3.02, -0.68) and higher risks of mental health-related emergency department visits (adjusted risk ratio = 2.96, 95% confidence interval: 1.51, 5.78) and psychiatric hospitalizations (adjusted risk ratio = 2.32, 95% confidence interval: 1.10, 4.91). We did not find strong evidence of a reciprocal relationship. Among homeless or unstably housed women with severe preexisting comorbid psychiatric conditions, recent violence has adverse mental health consequences. Reducing ongoing violence may improve mental health in this population. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    American journal of epidemiology 03/2015; 181(10). DOI:10.1093/aje/kwu350 · 4.98 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The knowledge of important biopsychosocial factors linking women's reproductive health and mental health is increasing. This review focuses on psychological aspects of contraception, unintended pregnancy, and abortion because these are common reproductive health experiences in U.S. women's lives. This review addresses the mental-health antecedents and consequences of these experiences, mostly focusing on depression and depressive symptoms before and after unintended pregnancy and contraception. As mental-health antecedents, depressive symptoms predict contraceptive behaviors that lead to unintended pregnancy, and mental-health disorders have been associated with having subsequent abortions. In examining the mental-health consequences, most sound research does not find abortion or contraceptive use to cause mental-health problems. Consequently, evidence does not support policies based on the notion that abortion harms women's mental health. Nevertheless, the abortion-care setting may be a place to integrate mental-health services. In contrast, women who have births resulting from unintended pregnancies may be at higher risk of postpartum depression. Social policies (e.g., paid maternity leave, subsidized child care) may protect women from mental-health problems and stress of unplanned children interrupting employment, education, and pre-existing family care responsibilities.
    10/2014; 1(1):239-247. DOI:10.1177/2372732214549328