Association Between CD4+ T-Lymphocyte Counts and Fecal Excretion of Schistosoma mansoni Eggs in Patients Coinfected with S. mansoni and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Before and After Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy.
Previously, we have shown that persons with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infection and reduced CD4(+) T-lymphocyte counts excrete significantly fewer Schistosoma mansoni eggs than HIV-1-negative persons with similar intensities of schistosome infections. To determine how antiretroviral therapy (ART) might affect egg excretion, we conducted a study of HIV+ adults living in an area highly endemic for S. mansoni as they began an ART program. Fecal egg excretion and CD4(+) T-lymphocyte counts were evaluated at enrollment as well as 2 and 4 weeks after initiation of ART. Fourteen individuals who were Kato-Katz-negative at enrollment subsequently started excreting S. mansoni eggs accompanied by a significant increase in CD4(+) T lymphocytes (P = 0.004). Study participants who were S. mansoni egg-positive at enrollment and received both praziquantel and ART also showed significantly increased CD4(+) T-lymphocyte counts compared with baseline (P < 0.0001). Our data support a role for CD4(+) T lymphocytes in S. mansoni egg excretion.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A prospective cohort study was conducted in two villages in Zambia to compare the efficacy of praziquantel in the treatment of schistosomiasis haematobium in people with and without concomitant infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Five hundred seven individuals with infected with Schistosoma haematobium were enrolled and followed-up for as long as 12 months after treatment with a single dose of praziquantel. Seventy-three were coinfected with HIV. The study demonstrated that praziquantel is still very effective in the treatment and control of S. haematobium even when there is coinfection with HIV (without symptoms and signs of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome [AIDS]/HIV disease). Resistance to reinfection with S. haematobium is not altered in subjects coinfected with HIV (without symptoms and signs of AIDS/HIV disease). Individuals with coinfection excreted fewer eggs and complained less of hematuria than those without HIV infection, and the sensitivity and positive predictive value of reported hematuria as an indication of heavy infection were lower in the group coinfected with HIV. This observation may have implications for the use of hematuria as an indicator for rapid diagnosis of schistosomiasis in areas where HIV is prevalent.
The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 11/2003; 69(4):420-8. · 2.70 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stunted development and reduced fecundity of Schistosoma parasites in immunodeficient mice and the impaired ability of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1)-infected humans to excrete schistosome eggs have been described. This study explores the effect that HIV-1-associated immunodeficiency has on the excretion of schistosome eggs in a large cohort of coinfected individuals.
In a cross-sectional survey, urine and stool samples were obtained from and HIV-1 status was determined for 1545 individuals. More extensive data, including quantitative measures of intensity of infection in schistosomiasis and immunodeficiency, were collected in the Mupfure schistosomiasis and HIV longitudinal cohort, composed of 379 participants of whom 154 were coinfected with HIV-1 and Schistosoma parasites.
In the cross-sectional survey, the overall prevalence of schistosomiasis was 43.4%, and 26.3% of the participants were infected with HIV-1. Schistosome infections were due to Schistosoma haematobium in 63.6% of cases, S. mansoni in 18.1% of cases, and dual infections in 18.4% of cases. Intensities of Schistosoma infections, measured by the number of eggs excreted and by the level of circulating anodic antigens, did not differ between HIV-1-negative and HIV-1-positive participants coinfected with S. haematobium, S. mansoni, or both. CD4 cell counts were significantly lower in HIV-1-positive participants and in S. mansoni-infected HIV-1-negative participants than in other participants.
The present study suggests that adult HIV-1-related immunodeficiency does not impair the ability to excrete eggs in low-intensity infection with S. haematobium, S. mansoni, or both and that infection with HIV-1 may not have major implications for diagnosis and surveillance of schistosomiasis.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 05/2005; 191(8):1311-20. DOI:10.1086/428907 · 6.00 Impact Factor
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