Quantification of left ventricular volumes and ejection fraction in mice using PET, compared with MRI.
ABSTRACT PET has become an important noninvasive imaging technique in cardiovascular research for the characterization of mouse models in vivo. This modality offers unique insight into biochemical changes on a molecular level, with excellent sensitivity. However, morphologic and functional changes may be of equal importance for a thorough assessment of left ventricular (LV) pathophysiology. Although echocardiography and MRI are widely considered the imaging techniques of choice for the assessment of these parameters, their use with PET considerably increases study complexity and decreases cost- and time-efficiency. In this study, a novel method for the additional quantification of LV volumes and ejection fraction (EF) from PET was evaluated using cardiac MRI as the reference method.
The radiolabeled glucose derivative 18F-FDG was injected into 33 mice (6 mice with previous permanent occlusion of the left anterior descending artery [LAD], 15 mice with a temporary 30-min occlusion of the LAD, and 12 mice without previous surgery). 18F-FDG uptake within the LV myocardium was measured using a dedicated small-animal PET scanner. After we reconstructed the images into 16 electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated frames, we determined the LV cavity volumes in end-diastole (EDV) and end-systole (ESV) and the EF using a semiautomatic segmentation algorithm based on elastic surfaces. A 6.3-T cardiac MRI examination was performed in the same animals using an ECG-triggered and respiratory-gated multislice cine sequence. The MR images were segmented with a semiautomatic algorithm using commercially available software.
Overall, measurements from PET agreed well with those obtained by MRI. Mean EDV and ESV were slightly overestimated by PET (86+/-43 microL and 44+/-42 microL), compared with MRI (73+/-44 microL and 41+/-46 microL); mean (+/-SD) EF was similar (PET, 55+/-19 microL; MRI, 54+/-18 microL). Correlation between PET and MRI was excellent for EDV (0.97) and ESV (0.96) and good for EF (0.86). The slope of the regression line was nearly perfect for EDV (0.98) and EF (1.01) and slightly below 1 for ESV (0.90), indicating a good separation of abnormal and normal values with PET. The y-intercept was above zero for EDV (15 microL) and ESV (7 microL) and near to zero for EF (0.2%).
The quantification of LV volumes and EF in mice with PET is both efficient and accurate. This method allows for combined molecular and functional imaging of the left ventricle within a single scan, obviating additional sophisticated MRI in many cases.
Article: Embryonic cardiomyocyte, but not autologous stem cell transplantation, restricts infarct expansion, enhances ventricular function, and improves long-term survival.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Controversy exists in regard to the beneficial effects of transplanting cardiac or somatic progenitor cells upon myocardial injury. We have therefore investigated the functional short- and long-term consequences after intramyocardial transplantation of these cell types in a murine lesion model. Myocardial infarction (MI) was induced in mice (n = 75), followed by the intramyocardial injection of 1-2×10(5) luciferase- and GFP-expressing embryonic cardiomyocytes (eCMs), skeletal myoblasts (SMs), mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) or medium into the infarct. Non-treated healthy mice (n = 6) served as controls. Bioluminescence and fluorescence imaging confirmed the engraftment and survival of the cells up to seven weeks postoperatively. After two weeks MRI was performed, which showed that infarct volume was significantly decreased by eCMs only (14.8±2.2% MI+eCM vs. 26.7±1.6% MI). Left ventricular dilation was significantly decreased by transplantation of any cell type, but most efficiently by eCMs. Moreover, eCM treatment increased the ejection fraction and cardiac output significantly to 33.4±2.2% and 22.3±1.2 ml/min. In addition, this cell type exclusively and significantly increased the end-systolic wall thickness in the infarct center and borders and raised the wall thickening in the infarct borders. Repetitive echocardiography examinations at later time points confirmed that these beneficial effects were accompanied by better survival rates. Cellular cardiomyoplasty employing contractile and electrically coupling embryonic cardiomyocytes (eCMs) into ischemic myocardium provoked significantly smaller infarcts with less adverse remodeling and improved cardiac function and long-term survival compared to transplantation of somatic cells (SMs and MSCs), thereby proving that a cardiomyocyte phenotype is important to restore myocardial function.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(4):e61510. · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: Measuring right ventricular function in the normal and hypertensive mouse hearts using admittance-derived pressure-volume loops.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Mice are a widely used animal model for investigating cardiovascular disease. Novel technologies have been used to quantify left ventricular function in this species, but techniques appropriate for determining right ventricular (RV) function are less well demonstrated. Detecting RV dysfunction is critical to assessing the progression of pulmonary vascular diseases such as pulmonary hypertension. We used an admittance catheter to measure pressure-volume loops in anesthetized, open-chested mice before and during vena cava occlusion. Mice exposed to chronic hypoxia for 10 days, which causes hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension (HPH), were compared with control (CTL) mice. HPH resulted in a 27.9% increase in RV mass (P < 0.005), a 67.5% increase in RV systolic pressure (P < 0.005), and a 61.2% decrease in cardiac output (P < 0.05). Preload recruitable stroke work (PRSW) and slope of the maximum derivative of pressure (dP/dt(max))-end-diastolic volume (EDV) relationship increased with HPH (P < 0.05). Although HPH increased effective arterial elastance (E(a)) over fivefold (from 2.7 ± 1.2 to 16.4 ± 2.5 mmHg/μl), only a mild increase in the ventricular end-systolic elastance (E(es)) was observed. As a result, a dramatic decrease in the efficiency of ventricular-vascular coupling occurred (E(es)/E(a) decreased from 0.71 ± 0.27 to 0.35 ± 0.17; P < 0.005). Changes in cardiac reserve were evaluated by dobutamine infusion. In CTL mice, dobutamine significantly enhanced E(es) and dP/dt(max)-EDV but also increased E(a), causing a decrease in E(es)/E(a). In HPH mice, slight but nonsignificant decreases in E(es), PRSW, dP/dt(max)-EDV, and E(a) were observed. Thus 10 days of HPH resulted in RV hypertrophy, ventricular-vascular decoupling, and a mild decrease in RV contractile reserve. This study demonstrates the feasibility of obtaining RV pressure-volume measurements in mice. These measurements provide insight into ventricular-vascular interactions healthy and diseased states.AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology 10/2010; 299(6):H2069-75. · 3.71 Impact Factor
Article: Determination of three-dimensional ventricular strain distributions in gene-targeted mice using tagged MRI.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A model-based method for calculating three-dimensional (3D) cardiac wall strain distributions in the mouse has been developed and tested in a genetically engineered mouse model of dilated cardiomyopathy. Data from MR tagging and harmonic phase (HARP) tracking were used to measure material point displacements, and 3D Lagrangian strains were calculated throughout the entire left ventricle (LV) with a deformable parametric model. A mouse model where cardiomyocytes are specifically made deficient in vinculin (VclKO) were compared to wild-type (WT) littermates. 3D strain analysis revealed differences in LV wall mechanics between WT and VclKO mice at 8 weeks of age when systolic function had just begun to decline. Most notably, end-systolic radial strain and torsional shear were reduced in VclKO hearts which contributed to regional mechanical dysfunction. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using MRI tagging methods to detect alterations in 3D myocardial strain distributions in genetically engineered mouse models of cardiovascular disease.Magnetic Resonance in Medicine 11/2010; 64(5):1281-8. · 2.96 Impact Factor
Klaus P Schäfers