MnTMPyP, a cell-permeant SOD mimetic, reduces oxidative stress and apoptosis following renal ischemia-reperfusion
ABSTRACT Oxidative stress and apoptosis are important factors in the etiology of renal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. The present study tested the hypothesis that the cell-permeant SOD mimetic manganese(III) tetrakis(1-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphyrin (MnTMPyP) protects the kidney from I/R-mediated oxidative stress and apoptosis in vivo. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (175-220 g) underwent renal I/R by bilateral clamping of the renal arteries for 45 min followed by reperfusion for 24 h. To examine the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in renal I/R injury, a subset of animals were treated with either saline vehicle (I/R Veh) or MnTMPyP (I/R Mn) (5 mg/kg ip) 30 min before and 6 h after surgery. MnTMPyP significantly attenuated the I/R-mediated increase in serum creatinine levels and decreased tubular epithelial cell damage following I/R. MnTMPyP also decreased TNF-alpha levels, gp(91phox), and lipid peroxidation after I/R. Furthermore, MnTMPyP inhibited the I/R-mediated increase in apoptosis and caspase-3 activation. Interestingly, although MnTMPyP did not increase expression of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2, it decreased the expression of the proapoptotic genes Bax and FasL. These results suggest that MnTMPyP is effective in reducing apoptosis associated with renal I/R injury and that multiple signaling mechanisms are involved in ROS-mediated cell death following renal I/R injury.
SourceAvailable from: Ewa Gurgul-Convey[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Friedreich's ataxia is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with cardiomyopathy and diabetes. Effective therapies for Friedreich's ataxia are an urgent unmet need; there are currently no options to prevent or treat this orphan disease. Friedreich's ataxia is caused by reduced expression of the mitochondrial protein frataxin. We have previously demonstrated that pancreatic β-cell dysfunction and death cause diabetes in Friedreich's ataxia. This is secondary to mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not known. Here we show that β-cell demise in frataxin deficiency is the consequence of oxidative stress-mediated activation of the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. The pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members Bad, DP5 and Bim are the key mediators of frataxin deficiency-induced β-cell death. Importantly, the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis is also activated in Friedreich's ataxia patients-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons. Interestingly, cAMP induction normalizes mitochondrial oxidative status and fully prevents activation of the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis in frataxin-deficient β-cells and neurons. This preclinical study suggests that incretin analogs hold potential to prevent/delay both diabetes and neurodegeneration in Friedreich's ataxia. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.Human Molecular Genetics 12/2014; DOI:10.1093/hmg/ddu745 · 6.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress and inflammation are intertwined contributors to numerous acute vascular pathologies. A novel dual bioactive nanoparticle with antioxidant/anti-inflammatory properties was developed based on the interactions of tocopherol phosphate and the manganese porphyrin SOD-mimetic, MnTMPyP. The size and drug incorporation efficiency were shown to be dependent on the amount of MnTMPyP added as well as the choice of surfactant. MnTMPyP was shown to retain its SOD-like activity while in intact particles and to release in a slow and controlled manner. Conjugation of anti-PECAM antibody to the nanoparticles provided endothelial targeting and potentiated nanoparticle-mediated suppression of inflammatory activation of these cells manifested by expression of VCAM, E-selectin, and IL-8. This nanoparticle technology may find applicability with drug combinations relevant for other pathologies.Molecular Pharmaceutics 05/2014; 11(7). DOI:10.1021/mp400677y · 4.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Adenosine is an endogenous regulator of vascular tone. This activity of adenosine is terminated by its uptake and metabolism by microvascular endothelial cells (MVEC). The predominant transporter involved is ENT1 (equilibrative nucleoside transporter subtype 1). MVEC also express the nucleobase transporter (ENBT1) which is involved in the cellular flux of adenosine metabolites such as hypoxanthine. Changes in either of these transport systems would impact the bioactivity of adenosine and its metabolism, including the formation of oxygen free radicals. MVEC isolated from skeletal muscle of ENT1(+/+) and ENT1(-/-) mice were subjected to oxidative stress induced by simulated ischemia/reperfusion or menadione. The functional activities of ENT1 and ENBT1 were assessed based on zero-trans influx kinetics of radiolabeled substrates. There was a reduction in the rate of ENBT1-mediated hypoxanthine uptake by ENT1(+/+) MVEC treated with menadione or after exposure to conditions that simulate ischemia/reperfusion. In both cases, the superoxide dismutase mimetic MnTMPyP attenuated the loss of ENBT1 activity, implicating superoxide radicals in the response. In contrast, MVEC isolated from ENT1(-/-) mice showed no reduction in ENBT1 activity upon treatment with menadione or simulated ischemia/reperfusion, but they did have a significantly higher level of catalase activity relative to ENT1(+/+) MVEC. These data suggest that ENBT1 activity is decreased in MVEC in response to the increased superoxide radical that is associated with ischemia/reperfusion injury. MVEC isolated from ENT1(-/-) mice do not show this reduction in ENBT1, possibly due to increased catalase activity. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.Microvascular Research 11/2014; 98C:16-22. DOI:10.1016/j.mvr.2014.11.005 · 2.43 Impact Factor