Substantial envelope-specific CD8 T-cell immunity fails to control SIV disease.
ABSTRACT It is unknown which HIV proteins to target by vaccination in order to generate the most effective CD8 T-cell immunity. We recently immunized SIV(mac251)-infected pigtail macaques with Gag peptides or a cocktail of peptides spanning all SIV proteins, including SIV Env. High-level SIV Env-specific CD8 T-cell responses were generated and 7 novel Env-specific CD8 T-cell epitopes in 10 animals were mapped. Env-specific CD8 T-cell responses were significantly inferior to Gag-specific responses, and no better than unvaccinated control animals, in the control of SIV replication and prevention of disease. Escape mutations emerged within several Env-specific CTL epitopes, suggesting at least some pressure imparted by the Env CTL responses, but this did not correlate with significantly reduced SIV replication. We conclude Env-specific CTL may not be the most effective response to induce by vaccination.
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ABSTRACT: Effective immunity to HIV is poorly understood. In particular, a role for antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in controlling HIV is controversial. We hypothesized that significant pressure from HIV-specific ADCC would result in immune-escape variants. A series of ADCC epitopes in HIV-infected subjects to specific consensus strain HIV peptides were mapped using a flow cytometric assay for natural killer cell activation. We then compared the ADCC responses to the same peptide epitope derived from the concurrent HIV sequence(s) expressed in circulating virus. In 9 of 13 epitopes studied, ADCC antibodies were unable to recognize the concurrent HIV sequence. Our studies suggest ADCC responses apply significant immune pressure on the virus. This result has implications for the induction of ADCC responses by HIV vaccines.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 05/2011; 108(18):7505-10. · 9.68 Impact Factor
Article: Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity and NK Cell-Driven Immune Escape in HIV Infection: Implications for HIV Vaccine Development.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The HIV-1 genome is malleable and a difficult target tot vaccinate against. It has long been recognised that cytotoxic T lymphocytes and neutralising antibodies readily select for immune escape HIV variants. It is now also clear that NK cells can also select for immune escape. NK cells force immune escape through both direct Killer-immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR)-mediated killing as well as through facilitating antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). These newer finding suggest NK cells and ADCC responses apply significant pressure to the virus. There is an opportunity to harness these immune responses in the design of more effective HIV vaccines.Advances in Virology 01/2012; 2012:637208.