Genotype and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii isolates in Taiwan.
ABSTRACT Rapid and accurate identification of the drug susceptibility profile of clinical strains is very important for controlling bacterial infections and determining the antibiotic therapy. The objective of this study was to investigate the spectrum of the correlation between phenotypic and genetic characters of the drug-resistant clinical isolates. A total of 133 clinical isolates, including 76 Acinetobacter baumannii and 57 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, were examined for their antibiotic susceptibility by the method of disc diffusion. Among them, most of the isolates were multiresistant, and 80% of the strains showed phenotypic resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics. Using PCR analysis, among the several types of beta-lactamases, TEM was the most prevalent, and OXA was the second most prevalent. The integron harbored was identified by conserved segment PCR, and 50% of the test isolates carried integrons with various gene cassette sizes inserted. The results obtained from this study reveal that the majority of these isolates displayed multiple drug resistance phenotypes that were associated with their mutational gene profiles.
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ABSTRACT: With beta-lactam drugs and immunosuppressants widely used, the infection caused by Acinetobacter baumannii (Ab) has become more and more serious with multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAb) emerging and worsening rapidly. Compared with other patients, the incidence and multidrug resistance of MDRAb are higher in children in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) because of immune deficiency, severe basic diseases, prolonged hospitalization and invasive operations. Hence it is significant to study the epidemiology and changes of antibacterial susceptibility in order to reduce the incidence of MDRAb in children.
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ABSTRACT: Acinetobacter baumannii is an aerobic non-motile Gram-negative bacterial pathogen that is resistant to most antibiotics. Carbapenems are the most common antibiotics for the treatment of infections caused by this pathogen. Mechanisms of antibiotic-resistance in A. baumannii are mainly mediated by efflux pumps-lactamases. The aim of this study was to determine antibiotic susceptibility, the possibility of existence of OXAs genes and fingerprinting by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) among clinical isolates of Acinetobacter collected from Kermanshah hospitals. One hundred and four isolates were collected from patients attending Imam Reza, Taleghani and Imam Khomeini hospitals of Kermanshah (Iran). Isolates were identified by biochemical tests and API 20NE kit. The susceptibility to different antibiotics was assessed with Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. PCR was performed for detection of bla OXA-23, bla OXA-24, bla OXA-51 and bla OXA-58 beta-lactamase genes. Clonal relatedness was estimated by PFGE (with the restriction enzyme Apa I) and DNA patterns were analyzed by Gel compare II 6.5 software. All isolates showed high-level of resistance to imipenem, meropenem as well as to other antimicrobial agents, while no resistance to polymyxin B, colistin, tigecylcine and minocycline was observed. The bla OXA-23like and bla OXA-24 like were found among 77.9% and 19.2% of the isolates, respectively. All isolates were positive for bla OXA-51, but none produced any amplicon for bla OXA-58. PFGE genotype analysis suggested the existence of eight clones among the 104 strains [A (n = 35), B (n = 29), C (n = 19), D (n = 10), E (n = 4), F (n = 3), G (n = 3), H (n = 1)]. Clone A was the dominant clone in hospital settings particularly infection wards so that the isolates in this group, compared to the other clones, showed higher levels of resistance to antibiotics. The bla OXA-51-like and bla OXA-23like were the predominant mechanisms of resistance to imipenem in A. baumannii. A high prevalence of clone A, B and C in different parts of the healthcare system showed that hospitalized patients should be safeguarded to prevent the spread of these clones. Early recognition of the presence of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii clones is useful for preventing their spread within the hospital environment.09/2013; 5(3):195-202.
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ABSTRACT: Salmonella spp. infections are considered as the most common food-borne disease globally. The contamination of food products with Salmonella has given rise to severe health and economic challenges. This study assessed the prevalence of Salmonella in the faeces of cows and goats in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa, their antibiotic resistance patterns as well as antibiotic-resistant gene determinant. Antibiotic disc was used for antibiogram profiles while polymerase chain reaction was employed for the detection of antibiotic-resistant genes. A total of 150 Salmonella were isolated from the faecal samples. Eighty two (55 %) isolates were recovered from cow faeces while 68 (45 %) were isolated from goat faeces. All Salmonella isolates were sensitive to ciprofloxacin (100 %) while 95 % were sensitive to ofloxacin. Also, a high sensitivity of 93 and 89 % was observed against nalidixic acid and ofloxacin, respectively. Salmonella isolates demonstrated moderate sensitivity against cephalothin (70 %), chloramphenicol (75 %) and minocycline (68 %) while 49 % were resistant to tetracycline and erythromycin. The prevalence of the antibiotic-resistant genes in Salmonella isolates were detected as follows: integron conserved segment 28 % (42/150), bla TEM gene 19.3 % (29/150), bla pse1 7.3 % (11/150) and bla amp C 4.7 % (7/150). The results obtained in the study imply that cow and goat faeces could be potential reservoirs of Salmonella and could possibly cause infections as a result of contamination of food products. There is a need for a surveillance system to track resistance patterns of Salmonella circulating in South Africa.Tropical Animal Health and Production 10/2014; 47(1). DOI:10.1007/s11250-014-0680-8 · 0.97 Impact Factor