This review is part of a series of review articles on the metabolism of drugs and other xenobiotics published in Chemistry & Biodiversity. After a thorough discussion of metabolic reactions and their enzymes, this article focuses on genetically determined differences in drug and xenobiotic metabolism. After a short introduction on the causes for genetic differences, the first focus is on species differences in drug and xenobiotic metabolism. A major chapter is then dedicated to clinically relevant genetic polymorphisms in human drug metabolism and resultant ethnic differences. The last two chapters deal with sex-dependent differences in drug metabolism and personalized pharmacotherapy related to inter-individual differences in drug metabolism.
"The possible mechanism is depicted in Figure 8. A lower degree of metabolic activity of the human compared to that of rat liver microsomes would be in agreement with several other studies    . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: (E)-3-(Pyridin-2-ylethynyl)cyclohex-2-enone O-(2-(3-(18)F-fluoropropoxy)ethyl) oxime ([(18)F]-PSS223) was evaluated in vitro and in vivo to establish its potential as a PET tracer for imaging metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5). [(18)F]-PSS223 was obtained in 20% decay corrected radiochemical yield whereas the non-radioactive PSS223 was accomplished in 70% chemical yield in a S(N)2 reaction of common intermediate mesylate 8 with potassium fluoride. The in vitro binding affinity of [(18)F]-PSS223 was measured directly in a Scatchard assay to give K(d) = 3.34 ± 2.05 nM. [(18)F]-PSS223 was stable in PBS and rat plasma but was significantly metabolized by rat liver microsomal enzymes, but to a lesser extent by human liver microsomes. Within 60 min, 90% and 20% of [(18)F]-PSS223 was metabolized by rat and human microsome enzymes, respectively. In vitro autoradiography on horizontal rat brain slices showed heterogeneous distribution of [(18)F]-PSS223 with the highest accumulation in brain regions where mGluR5 is highly expressed (hippocampus, striatum and cortex). Autoradiography in vitro under blockade conditions with ABP688 confirmed the high specificity of [(18)F]-PSS223 for mGluR5. Under the same blocking conditions but using the mGluR1 antagonist, JNJ16259685, no blockade was observed demonstrating the selectivity of [(18)F]-PSS223 for mGluR5 over mGluR1. Despite favourable in vitro properties of [(18)F]-PSS223, a clear-cut visualization of mGluR5-rich brain regions in vivo in rats was not possible mainly due to a fast clearance from the brain and low metabolic stability of [(18)F]-PSS223.
American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging 11/2012; 2(1):14-28. DOI:10.5167/uzh-71398 · 3.25 Impact Factor
"In particular, the CYP2D6 gene is highly polymorphic, with 75 different major alleles currently known. Some of these alleles are associated with reduced enzyme activity or even the absence of enzyme function (Krä mer and Testa, 2008). On the basis of the combination of CYP2D6 alleles, persons can be categorized into three main genotypes: poor metabolizers (PMs), extensive metabolizers (EMs), and ultrarapid metabolizers (Table 3). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prodrug concept has been used to improve undesirable properties of drugs since the late 19th century, although it was only at the end of the 1950s that the actual term prodrug was introduced for the first time. Prodrugs are inactive, bioreversible derivatives of active drug molecules that must undergo an enzymatic and/or chemical transformation in vivo to release the active parent drug, which can then elicit its desired pharmacological effect in the body. In most cases, prodrugs are simple chemical derivatives that are only one or two chemical or enzymatic steps away from the active parent drug. However, some prodrugs lack an obvious carrier or promoiety but instead result from a molecular modification of the prodrug itself, which generates a new active compound. Numerous prodrugs designed to overcome formulation, delivery, and toxicity barriers to drug utilization have reached the market. In fact, approximately 20% of all small molecular drugs approved during the period 2000 to 2008 were prodrugs. Although the development of a prodrug can be very challenging, the prodrug approach represents a feasible way to improve the erratic properties of investigational drugs or drugs already on the market. This review introduces in depth the rationale behind the use of the prodrug approach from past to present, and also considers the possible problems that can arise from inadequate activation of prodrugs.
"Pharmacokinetics is a branch of pharmacology specialized in the determination of the fate of drugs following the administration into a living organism. According to pharmacokinetics studies, administered drugs may have their chemical structures altered after metabolism and biological activities of the parent drugs are thus changed  . In this connection, the pharmacological/toxic action of drugs may not be due to the drug itself, but to its active metabolite(s) in the body. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Synthetic chemical drugs, while being efficacious in the clinical management of many diseases, are often associated with undesirable side effects in patients. It is now clear that the need of therapeutic intervention in many clinical conditions cannot be satisfactorily met by synthetic chemical drugs. Since the research and development of new chemical drugs remain time-consuming, capital-intensive and risky, much effort has been put in the search for alternative routes for drug discovery in China. This narrative review illustrates various approaches to the research and drug discovery in Chinese herbal medicine. Although this article focuses on Chinese traditional drugs, it is also conducive to the development of other traditional remedies and innovative drug discovery.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 03/2011; 2011(1):403709. DOI:10.1093/ecam/neq056 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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