Isolation and manipulation of mammalian neural stem cells in vitro
ABSTRACT Neural stem cells are potentially a source of cells not only for replacement therapy but also as drug vectors, bringing bioactive molecules into the brain. Stem cell-like cells can be isolated readily from the human brain, thus, it is important to find culture systems that enable expansion in a multipotent state to generate cells that are of potential use for therapy. Currently, two systems have been described for the maintenance and expansion of multipotent progenitors, an adhesive substrate bound and the neurosphere culture. Both systems have pros and cons, but the neurosphere may be able to simulate the three-dimensional environment of the niche in which the cells reside in vivo. Thus, the neurosphere, when used and cultured appropriately, can expand and provide important information about the mechanisms that potentially control neural stem cells in vivo.
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- "Neurospheres were first described in 1992, using both adult and the embryonic CNS (Reynolds and Weiss, 1992; Reynolds et al., 1992), and are defined as three dimensional structures that grow as floating aggregates and are composed by a heterogeneous mixture of multipotent NSC, proliferating neural progenitor cells (NPC) and postmitotic neurons and glia (Jensen and Parmar, 2006). The neurosphere system has been used extensively since it is thought to provide a three-dimensional environment that can mimic the neurogenic niche (Giachino et al., 2009). In fact, the neurosphere system is considered as a valuable in vitro model to study neurodevelopmental processes, as it is maintained under defined http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdevneu.2014.07.001 0736-5748/© 2014 ISDN. "
ABSTRACT: Neural stem cells (NSC) are self-renewing multipotent cells that have emerged as a powerful tool to repair the injured brain. These cells can be cultured as neurospheres, which are floating aggregates of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPC). Despite their high clonal expansion capacity, it has been suggested that in neurospheres, only a small percentage of cells are capable of proliferation and that this system is not efficient in terms of neurogenic competence. Thus, our aim was to develop a neurosphere culture method with a highly proliferative stem/progenitor cell population and particularly with a prominent neurogenic potential, surpassing some of the claimed weaknesses of the neurosphere assay. In our model, mouse neurospheres were harvested from neural tissue at E15 and after only 4 days-in-vitro (DIV), we have achieved highly proliferative primary neurospheres (81% Sox2 and 76% Ki67 positive cells) and a rather low number of cells expressing glial and neuronal markers (∼10%). After inducing differentiation, we have attained an enriched neuronal population (45% β-III-tubulin positive cells at 15 DIV). Using a simple methodology, we have developed a NSPC model that can provide a valuable source of neuronal precursors, thus offering a potential starting point for cell replacement therapies following CNS injury.International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience 07/2014; 37. DOI:10.1016/j.ijdevneu.2014.07.001 · 2.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles is the major neurogenic region in the adult mammalian brain, harbouring neural stem cells within defined niches. The identity of these stem cells and the factors regulating their fate are poorly understood. We have genetically mapped a population of Nestin-expressing cells during postnatal development to study their potential and fate in vivo. Taking advantage of the recombination characteristics of a nestin::CreER(T2) allele, we followed a subpopulation of neural stem cells and traced their fate in a largely unrecombined neurogenic niche. Perinatal nestin::CreER(T2)-expressing cells give rise to multiple glial cell types and neurons, as well as to stem cells of the adult SVZ. In the adult SVZ nestin::CreER(T2)-expressing neural stem cells give rise to several neuronal subtypes in the olfactory bulb (OB). We addressed whether the same population of neural stem cells play a role in SVZ regeneration. Following anti-mitotic treatment to eliminate rapidly dividing progenitors, relatively quiescent nestin::CreER(T2)-targeted cells are spared and contribute to SVZ regeneration, generating new proliferating precursors and neuroblasts. Finally, we have identified neurogenic progenitors clustered in ependymal-like niches within the rostral migratory stream (RMS) of the OB. These OB-RMS progenitors generate neuroblasts that, upon transplantation, graft, migrate and differentiate into granule and glomerular neurons. In summary, using conditional lineage tracing we have identified neonatal cells that are the source of neurogenic and regenerative neural stem cells in the adult SVZ and occupy a novel neurogenic niche in the OB.European Journal of Neuroscience 07/2009; 30(1):9-24. DOI:10.1111/j.1460-9568.2009.06798.x · 3.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Neurogenesis, the production of neural cell-types from neural stem cells (NSCs), occurs during development as well as within select regions of the adult brain. NSCs in the adult subependymal zone (SEZ) exist in a well-categorized niche microenvironment established by surrounding cells and their molecular products. The components of this niche maintain the NSCs and their definitive properties, including the ability to self-renew and multipotency (neuronal and glial differentiation). We describe a model in vitro NSC niche, derived from embryonic stem cells, that produces many of the cells and products of the developing subventricular zone (SVZ) and adult SEZ NSC niche. We demonstrate a possible role for apoptosis and for components of the extracellular matrix in the maintenance of the NSC population within our niche cultures. We characterize expression of genes relevant to NSC self-renewal and the process of neurogenesis and compare these findings to gene expression produced by an established neural-induction protocol employing retinoic acid. The in vitro NSC niche shows an identity that is distinct from the neurally induced embryonic cells that were used to derive it. Molecular and cellular components found in our in vitro NSC niche include NSCs, neural progeny, and ECM components and their receptors. Establishment of the in vitro NSC niche occurs in conjunction with apoptosis. Applications of this culture system range from studies of signaling events fundamental to niche formation and maintenance as well as development of unique NSC transplant platforms to treat disease or injury.BMC Developmental Biology 01/2010; 10:5. DOI:10.1186/1471-213X-10-5 · 2.75 Impact Factor