Isolation and manipulation of mammalian neural stem cells in vitro.
ABSTRACT Neural stem cells are potentially a source of cells not only for replacement therapy but also as drug vectors, bringing bioactive molecules into the brain. Stem cell-like cells can be isolated readily from the human brain, thus, it is important to find culture systems that enable expansion in a multipotent state to generate cells that are of potential use for therapy. Currently, two systems have been described for the maintenance and expansion of multipotent progenitors, an adhesive substrate bound and the neurosphere culture. Both systems have pros and cons, but the neurosphere may be able to simulate the three-dimensional environment of the niche in which the cells reside in vivo. Thus, the neurosphere, when used and cultured appropriately, can expand and provide important information about the mechanisms that potentially control neural stem cells in vivo.
- SourceAvailable from: Ana S Falcão[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Neural stem cells (NSC) are self-renewing multipotent cells that have emerged as a powerful tool to repair the injured brain. These cells can be cultured as neurospheres, which are floating aggregates of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPC). Despite their high clonal expansion capacity, it has been suggested that in neurospheres, only a small percentage of cells are capable of proliferation and that this system is not efficient in terms of neurogenic competence. Thus, our aim was to develop a neurosphere culture method with a highly proliferative stem/progenitor cell population and particularly with a prominent neurogenic potential, surpassing some of the claimed weaknesses of the neurosphere assay. In our model, mouse neurospheres were harvested from neural tissue at E15 and after only 4 days-in-vitro (DIV), we have achieved highly proliferative primary neurospheres (81% Sox2 and 76% Ki67 positive cells) and a rather low number of cells expressing glial and neuronal markers (∼10%). After inducing differentiation, we have attained an enriched neuronal population (45% β-III-tubulin positive cells at 15 DIV). Using a simple methodology, we have developed a NSPC model that can provide a valuable source of neuronal precursors, thus offering a potential starting point for cell replacement therapies following CNS injury.International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience 07/2014; 37. DOI:10.1016/j.ijdevneu.2014.07.001 · 2.92 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To better understand the extrinsic signals that control neural stem cell (NSC) fate, here we applied a microwell array platform which allows high-throughput clonal analyses of NSCs, cultured either as neurospheres or as adherent clones, exposed to poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel substrates functionalized with selected signaling molecules. We analyzed by time-lapse microscopy and retrospective immunostaining the role of integrin and Notch ligands, two key NSC niche components, in altering the behavior of several hundred single stem cells isolated from a previously described Hes5::GFP reporter mouse. NSC self-renewal was increased by 1.5-fold upon exposure to covalently tethered Laminin-1 and fibronectin fragment 9-10 (FN(9-10)), where 60-65% of single cells proliferated extensively and remained Nestin positive. Tethering of the Notch ligand Jagged-1 induced activation of Notch signaling. While Jagged-1 alone increased cell survival and proliferation, no further increase in the clonogenic potential of Hes5::GFP cells was observed upon co-stimulation with Laminin-1 and Jagged-1. We believe that the bioengineering of such in vitro niche analogues is a powerful approach to elucidate single stem cell fate regulation in a well-controlled fashion.Integrative Biology 02/2012; 4(4):391-400. DOI:10.1039/c2ib00070a · 4.00 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles is the major neurogenic region in the adult mammalian brain, harbouring neural stem cells within defined niches. The identity of these stem cells and the factors regulating their fate are poorly understood. We have genetically mapped a population of Nestin-expressing cells during postnatal development to study their potential and fate in vivo. Taking advantage of the recombination characteristics of a nestin::CreER(T2) allele, we followed a subpopulation of neural stem cells and traced their fate in a largely unrecombined neurogenic niche. Perinatal nestin::CreER(T2)-expressing cells give rise to multiple glial cell types and neurons, as well as to stem cells of the adult SVZ. In the adult SVZ nestin::CreER(T2)-expressing neural stem cells give rise to several neuronal subtypes in the olfactory bulb (OB). We addressed whether the same population of neural stem cells play a role in SVZ regeneration. Following anti-mitotic treatment to eliminate rapidly dividing progenitors, relatively quiescent nestin::CreER(T2)-targeted cells are spared and contribute to SVZ regeneration, generating new proliferating precursors and neuroblasts. Finally, we have identified neurogenic progenitors clustered in ependymal-like niches within the rostral migratory stream (RMS) of the OB. These OB-RMS progenitors generate neuroblasts that, upon transplantation, graft, migrate and differentiate into granule and glomerular neurons. In summary, using conditional lineage tracing we have identified neonatal cells that are the source of neurogenic and regenerative neural stem cells in the adult SVZ and occupy a novel neurogenic niche in the OB.European Journal of Neuroscience 07/2009; 30(1):9-24. DOI:10.1111/j.1460-9568.2009.06798.x · 3.67 Impact Factor