Isolation and manipulation of mammalian neural stem cells in vitro.
ABSTRACT Neural stem cells are potentially a source of cells not only for replacement therapy but also as drug vectors, bringing bioactive molecules into the brain. Stem cell-like cells can be isolated readily from the human brain, thus, it is important to find culture systems that enable expansion in a multipotent state to generate cells that are of potential use for therapy. Currently, two systems have been described for the maintenance and expansion of multipotent progenitors, an adhesive substrate bound and the neurosphere culture. Both systems have pros and cons, but the neurosphere may be able to simulate the three-dimensional environment of the niche in which the cells reside in vivo. Thus, the neurosphere, when used and cultured appropriately, can expand and provide important information about the mechanisms that potentially control neural stem cells in vivo.
- SourceAvailable from: Mark D Kirk[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Neurogenesis, the production of neural cell-types from neural stem cells (NSCs), occurs during development as well as within select regions of the adult brain. NSCs in the adult subependymal zone (SEZ) exist in a well-categorized niche microenvironment established by surrounding cells and their molecular products. The components of this niche maintain the NSCs and their definitive properties, including the ability to self-renew and multipotency (neuronal and glial differentiation). We describe a model in vitro NSC niche, derived from embryonic stem cells, that produces many of the cells and products of the developing subventricular zone (SVZ) and adult SEZ NSC niche. We demonstrate a possible role for apoptosis and for components of the extracellular matrix in the maintenance of the NSC population within our niche cultures. We characterize expression of genes relevant to NSC self-renewal and the process of neurogenesis and compare these findings to gene expression produced by an established neural-induction protocol employing retinoic acid. The in vitro NSC niche shows an identity that is distinct from the neurally induced embryonic cells that were used to derive it. Molecular and cellular components found in our in vitro NSC niche include NSCs, neural progeny, and ECM components and their receptors. Establishment of the in vitro NSC niche occurs in conjunction with apoptosis. Applications of this culture system range from studies of signaling events fundamental to niche formation and maintenance as well as development of unique NSC transplant platforms to treat disease or injury.BMC Developmental Biology 01/2010; 10:5. · 2.73 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Recent studies identified a highly tumorigenic subpopulation of glioma stem cells (GSCs) within malignant gliomas. GSCs are proposed to originate from transformed neural stem cells (NSCs). Several pathways active in NSCs, including the Notch pathway, were shown to promote proliferation and tumorigenesis in GSCs. Notch2 is highly expressed in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), a highly malignant astrocytoma. It is therefore conceivable that increased Notch2 signaling in NSCs contributes to the formation of GBM. Here, we demonstrate that mice constitutively expressing the activated intracellular domain of Notch2 in NSCs display a hyperplasia of the neurogenic niche and reduced neuronal lineage entry. Neurospheres derived from these mice show increased proliferation, survival and resistance to apoptosis. Moreover, they preferentially differentiate into astrocytes, which are the characteristic cellular population of astrocytoma. Likewise, we show that Notch2 signaling increases proliferation and resistance to apoptosis in human GBM cell lines. Gene expression profiling of GBM patient tumor samples reveals a positive correlation of Notch2 transcripts with gene transcripts controlling anti-apoptotic processes, stemness and astrocyte fate, and a negative correlation with gene transcripts controlling proapoptotic processes and oligodendrocyte fate. Our data show that Notch2 signaling in NSCs produces features of GSCs and induces astrocytic lineage entry, consistent with a possible role in astrocytoma formation.Cell Death & Disease 01/2012; 3:e325. · 6.04 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Loss of function mutations in UPF3B result in variable clinical presentations including intellectual disability (ID, syndromic and non-syndromic), autism, childhood onset schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. UPF3B is a core member of the nonsense mediated mRNA decay (NMD) pathway that functions to rapidly degrade transcripts with premature termination codons (PTCs). Traditionally identified in thousands of human diseases, PTCs were recently also found to be part of 'normal' genetic variation in human populations. Furthermore, many human transcripts have naturally occurring regulatory features compatible with 'endogenous' PTCs strongly suggesting roles of NMD beyond PTC mRNA control. In this study, we investigated the role of Upf3b and NMD in neural cells. We provide evidence that suggests Upf3b dependent NMD (Upf3b-NMD) is regulated at multiple levels during development including regulation of expression and sub-cellular localisation of Upf3b. Furthermore complementary expression of Upf3b, Upf3a and Stau1 stratify the developing dorsal telencephalon, suggesting that alternative NMD, and the related Staufen1 mediated mRNA decay (SMD) pathways are differentially employed. Loss of Upf3b-NMD in neural progenitor cells resulted in the expansion of cell numbers at the expense of their differentiation. In primary hippocampal neurons loss of Upf3b-NMD resulted in subtle neurite growth effects. Our data suggest that the cellular consequences of loss of Upf3b-NMD can be explained in-part by changes in expression of key NMD-feature containing transcripts which are commonly deregulated also in patients with UPF3B mutations. Our research identifies novel pathological mechanisms of UPF3B mutations and at least partly explains the clinical phenotype of UPF3B patients.Human Molecular Genetics 07/2013; · 7.69 Impact Factor