Two-electron oxidation of N,N,N',N'-tetramethylphenylenediamine with a chromium(v) salen complex.
ABSTRACT The oxidation of tetramethylphenylenediamine (TMPD) with (salen)CrVO+ generates initially the 2-electron product TMPD2+, followed by the reaction with excess TMPD to yield the radical cation, TMPD+. The kinetics of both TMPD/(salen)CrVO+ and TMPD/TMPD2+ reactions are acid-dependent, with TMPD being the most reactive form, and the doubly protonated TMPDH2(2+) exhibiting no discernible reactivity toward either (salen)CrVO+ or TMPD2+. The specific rate constants for the individual reactions are: TMPD/(salen)CrVO+, k=(6.28+/-0.50)x10(9) M(-1) s(-1), TMPDH+/(salen)CrVO+, (3.89+/-0.31)x10(5), TMPD/TMPD2+, (7.61+/-0.42)x10(8), and TMPDH+/TMPD2+, (3.46+/-0.22)x10(4).
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ABSTRACT: The four-electron reduction of dioxygen by decamethylferrocene (Fc*) to water is efficiently catalyzed by a binuclear copper(II) complex (1) and a mononuclear copper(II) complex (2) in the presence of trifluoroacetic acid in acetone at 298 K. Fast electron transfer from Fc* to 1 and 2 affords the corresponding Cu(I) complexes, which react at low temperature (193 K) with dioxygen to afford the η(2):η(2)-peroxo dicopper(II) (3) and bis-μ-oxo dicopper(III) (4) intermediates, respectively. The rate constants for electron transfer from Fc* and octamethylferrocene (Me(8)Fc) to 1 as well as electron transfer from Fc* and Me(8)Fc to 3 were determined at various temperatures, leading to activation enthalpies and entropies. The activation entropies of electron transfer from Fc* and Me(8)Fc to 1 were determined to be close to zero, as expected for outer-sphere electron-transfer reactions without formation of any intermediates. For electron transfer from Fc* and Me(8)Fc to 3, the activation entropies were also found to be close to zero. Such agreement indicates that the η(2):η(2)-peroxo complex (3) is directly reduced by Fc* rather than via the conversion to the corresponding bis-μ-oxo complex, followed by the electron-transfer reduction by Fc* leading to the four-electron reduction of dioxygen to water. The bis-μ-oxo species (4) is reduced by Fc* with a much faster rate than the η(2):η(2)-peroxo complex (3), but this also leads to the four-electron reduction of dioxygen to water.Chemistry - A European Journal 01/2012; 18(4):1084-93. · 5.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The kinetics and thermodynamics of formation of Cu(II)-superoxo (Cu-O2) complexes by the reaction of Cu(I) complexes with dioxygen (O2) and the reduction of Cu(II)-superoxo complexes to dinuclear Cu-peroxo complexes are discussed. In the former case, electron transfer from a Cu(I) complex to O2 occurs concomitantly with binding of O2 •- to the corresponding Cu(II) species. This is defined as an inner-sphere Cu(II) ion-coupled electron transfer process. Electron transfer from another Cu(I) complex to preformed Cu(II)-superoxo complexes also occurs concomitantly with binding of the the Cu(II)-peroxo species with the Cu(II) species to produce the dinuclear Cu-peroxo (Cu2-O2) complexes. The kinetics and thermodynamics of outer-sphere electron-transfer reduction of Cu2-O2 complexes are also been discussed in light of the Marcus theory of outer-sphere electron transfer.Coordination Chemistry Reviews 01/2013; 257(1):187-195. · 12.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A comparative study of catalytic activity under homogeneous and heterogeneous conditions was carried out using the (salen)Cr(III)-catalyzed oxidation of tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) with iodosobenzene as a model reaction. Amine-functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) were synthesized in a co-condensation reaction and functionalized with salen via a covalent Si-C bond. A Cr(III) complex of this supported ligand, MSN-(salen)Cr(III), was prepared and characterized. Data from powder XRD, BET isotherms and BJH pore size distribution all showed that MSN-(salen)Cr(III) still had the typical MSN high surface area, narrow pore size distribution, and ordered hexagonal pore structure, which were further confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. (13)C and (29)Si solid-state NMR data provided structural information about the catalyst and verified successful functionalization of the salen ligand and coordination to Cr(III). No unreacted salen or Cr(III) were observed. The loadings of salen and salen-Cr(III) complex were determined via TGA and EDX, respectively. Both measurements indicated that approximately 0.5 mmol/g of catalyst was loaded on the surface of MSN. The oxidation of TMB with iodosobenzene using MSN-(salen)Cr(III) as a heterogeneous catalyst exhibited both similarities and differences with the analogous homogeneous reaction using (salen)Cr(III)(H(2)O)(+) as a catalyst in aqueous acetonitrile. In the presence of 0.10 M HClO(4), the two catalytic reactions proceeded at similar rates and generated the doubly oxidized product TMB(2+). In the absence of acid, the radical cation TMB (+) was produced. The kinetics of the heterogeneous reaction in the absence of added acid responded to concentrations of all three reagents, i.e. (salen)Cr(III), TMB, and PhIO.Dalton Transactions 06/2009; · 4.10 Impact Factor