Simulating extracorporeal membrane oxygenation emergencies to improve human performance. Part I: methodologic and technologic innovations.
ABSTRACT Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a form of long-term cardiopulmonary bypass used to treat infants, children, and adults with respiratory and/or cardiac failure despite maximal medical therapy. Mechanical emergencies on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) have an associated mortality of 25%. Thus, acquiring and maintaining the technical, behavioral, and critical thinking skills necessary to manage ECMO emergencies is essential to patient survival. Traditional training in ECMO management is primarily didactic in nature and usually complemented with varying degrees of hands-on training using a water-filled ECMO circuit. These traditional training methods do not provide an opportunity for trainees to recognize and interpret real-time clinical cues generated by human patients and their monitoring equipment. Adult learners are most likely to acquire such skills in an active learning environment. To provide authentic, intensive, interactive ECMO training without risk to real patients, we used methodologies pioneered by the aerospace industry and our experience developing a simulation-based training program in neonatal resuscitation to develop a similar simulation-based training program in ECMO crisis management, ECMO Sim.
A survey was conducted at the 19th Annual Children's National Medical Center ECMO Symposium to determine current methods for ECMO training. Using commercially available technology, we linked a neonatal manikin with a standard neonatal ECMO circuit primed with artificial blood. Both the manikin and circuit were placed in a simulated neonatal intensive care unit environment equipped with remotely controlled monitors, real medical equipment and human colleagues. Twenty-five healthcare professionals, all of whom care for patients on ECMO and who underwent traditional ECMO training in the prior year, participated in a series of simulated ECMO emergencies. At the conclusion of the program, subjects completed a questionnaire qualitatively comparing ECMO Sim with their previous traditional ECMO training experience. The amount of time spent engaged in active and passive activities during both ECMO Sim and traditional ECMO training was quantified by review of videotape of each program.
Hospitals currently use lectures, multiple-choice exams, water drills, and animal laboratory testing for their ECMO training. Modification of the circuit allowed for physiologically appropriate circuit pressures (both pre- and postoxygenator) to be achieved while circulating artificial blood continuously through the circuit and manikin. Realistic changes in vital signs on the bedside monitor and fluctuations in the mixed venous oxygen saturation monitor were also effectively achieved remotely. All subjects rated the realism of the scenarios as good or excellent and described ECMO Sim as more effective than traditional ECMO training. They reported that ECMO Sim engaged their intellect to a greater degree and better developed their technical, behavioral, and critical thinking skills. Active learning (eg, hands-on activities) comprised 78% of the total ECMO Sim program compared with 14% for traditional ECMO training (P < 0.001). Instructor-led lectures predominated in traditional ECMO training.
Traditional ECMO training programs have yet to incorporate simulation-based methodology. Using current technology it is possible to realistically simulate in real-time the clinical cues (visual, auditory, and tactile) generated by a patient on ECMO. ECMO Sim as a training program provides more opportunities for active learning than traditional training programs in ECMO management and is overwhelmingly preferred by the experienced healthcare professionals serving as subjects in this study. Subjects also indicated that they felt that the acquisition of key cognitive, technical, and behavioral skills and transfer of those skills to the real medical domain was better achieved during simulation-based training.
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ABSTRACT: Background: Following the 2009 H1N1 Influenza pandemic, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) emerged as a viable alternative in selected, severe cases of ARDS. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) is a major public health problem. Average medical costs for ARDS survivors on an annual basis are multiple times those dedicated to a healthy individual. Advances in medical and ventilatory management of severe lung injury and ARDS have improved outcomes in some patients, but these advances fail to consistently “rescue” a significant proportion of those affected. Discussion: Here we present a synopsis of the challenges, considerations, and potential controversies regarding veno-venous ECMO that will be of benefit to anesthesiologists, surgeons, and intensivists, especially those newly confronted with care of the ECMO patient. We outline a number of points related to ECMO, particularly regarding cannulation, pump/oxygenator design, anticoagulation, and intravascular fluid management of patients. We then address these challenges/considerations/controversies in the context of their potential future implications on clinical approaches to ECMO patients, focusing on the development and advancement of standardized ECMO clinical practices. Summary: Since the 2009 H1N1 pandemic ECMO has gained a wider acceptance. There are challenges that still must be overcome. Further investigations of the benefits and effects of ECMO need to be undertaken in order to facilitate the implementation of this technology on a larger scale. Keywords: ECMO, Respiratory distress syndrome, Adult, Veno-venous, CannulationBMC Anesthesiology 08/2014; 14:65. DOI:10.1186/1471-2253-14-65 · 1.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The reversal efficacy of 2% lipid emulsion in cardiac asystole induced by different concentrations of bupivacaine is poorly defined and needs to be determined.BMC Anesthesiology 07/2014; 14:60. DOI:10.1186/1471-2253-14-60 · 1.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The use of Extracorporeal Life Support (ECLS) in children and adults has markedly increased during the past few years with over 4000 patients placed on ECLS every year in over 200 centers. This manuscript focuses on updates to the physiology and mechanics of ECLS with use of magnetically levitated centrifugal pumps, hollow fiber gas exchange devices, and bi-caval dual lumen catheters. We also explore controversies in management including indications; cannulation approaches; renal replacement; monitoring of anticoagulation; early ambulation and termination of ECLS. Finally, we present changes in the systems that provide ECLS including the single provider model and regionalization of care.Seminars in Pediatric Surgery 11/2014; 24(1). DOI:10.1053/j.sempedsurg.2014.11.002 · 1.94 Impact Factor