Simulating Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Emergencies to Improve Human Performance. Part I: Methodologic and Technologic Innovations
ABSTRACT Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a form of long-term cardiopulmonary bypass used to treat infants, children, and adults with respiratory and/or cardiac failure despite maximal medical therapy. Mechanical emergencies on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) have an associated mortality of 25%. Thus, acquiring and maintaining the technical, behavioral, and critical thinking skills necessary to manage ECMO emergencies is essential to patient survival. Traditional training in ECMO management is primarily didactic in nature and usually complemented with varying degrees of hands-on training using a water-filled ECMO circuit. These traditional training methods do not provide an opportunity for trainees to recognize and interpret real-time clinical cues generated by human patients and their monitoring equipment. Adult learners are most likely to acquire such skills in an active learning environment. To provide authentic, intensive, interactive ECMO training without risk to real patients, we used methodologies pioneered by the aerospace industry and our experience developing a simulation-based training program in neonatal resuscitation to develop a similar simulation-based training program in ECMO crisis management, ECMO Sim.
A survey was conducted at the 19th Annual Children's National Medical Center ECMO Symposium to determine current methods for ECMO training. Using commercially available technology, we linked a neonatal manikin with a standard neonatal ECMO circuit primed with artificial blood. Both the manikin and circuit were placed in a simulated neonatal intensive care unit environment equipped with remotely controlled monitors, real medical equipment and human colleagues. Twenty-five healthcare professionals, all of whom care for patients on ECMO and who underwent traditional ECMO training in the prior year, participated in a series of simulated ECMO emergencies. At the conclusion of the program, subjects completed a questionnaire qualitatively comparing ECMO Sim with their previous traditional ECMO training experience. The amount of time spent engaged in active and passive activities during both ECMO Sim and traditional ECMO training was quantified by review of videotape of each program.
Hospitals currently use lectures, multiple-choice exams, water drills, and animal laboratory testing for their ECMO training. Modification of the circuit allowed for physiologically appropriate circuit pressures (both pre- and postoxygenator) to be achieved while circulating artificial blood continuously through the circuit and manikin. Realistic changes in vital signs on the bedside monitor and fluctuations in the mixed venous oxygen saturation monitor were also effectively achieved remotely. All subjects rated the realism of the scenarios as good or excellent and described ECMO Sim as more effective than traditional ECMO training. They reported that ECMO Sim engaged their intellect to a greater degree and better developed their technical, behavioral, and critical thinking skills. Active learning (eg, hands-on activities) comprised 78% of the total ECMO Sim program compared with 14% for traditional ECMO training (P < 0.001). Instructor-led lectures predominated in traditional ECMO training.
Traditional ECMO training programs have yet to incorporate simulation-based methodology. Using current technology it is possible to realistically simulate in real-time the clinical cues (visual, auditory, and tactile) generated by a patient on ECMO. ECMO Sim as a training program provides more opportunities for active learning than traditional training programs in ECMO management and is overwhelmingly preferred by the experienced healthcare professionals serving as subjects in this study. Subjects also indicated that they felt that the acquisition of key cognitive, technical, and behavioral skills and transfer of those skills to the real medical domain was better achieved during simulation-based training.
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ABSTRACT: Severe reactions to radiographic contrast agents can be life threatening, and although they are rare, effective recognition and management are essential to improving outcomes. A high-fidelity radiology simulation course for radiology residents and technologists focusing on severe contrast reactions and immediate treatments was designed to test the hypothesis that knowledge would improve with this educational intervention. A prospective pretest and posttest study design was used. Residents and technologists worked in teams of three to five members. Learning objectives focused on demonstrating when and how to use basic life support skills and epinephrine auto-injectors. Each resident and technologist was administered a pretest prior to the start of the case scenarios and a posttest following the debriefing session. Scores from the pretest and posttest for the residents and technologists were compared using a paired-samples t test. Nineteen radiology residents and 11 radiology technologists participated. The average test scores were higher and improved significantly following the simulation experience for both the radiology residents (57% vs 82%, P < .001) and technologists (47% vs 72%, P = .006). Anonymous evaluations demonstrated that the experience was well received by residents and technologists, with 97% of learners (29 of 30) rating the experience as extremely or very helpful. Important learning themes included the knowledge of epinephrine auto-injector use and basic life support skills. High-fidelity simulation for radiology residents and technologists focusing on epinephrine auto-injector use and basic life support skills during the first 5 minutes of a severe contrast reaction can significantly improve recognition and knowledge in treating patients having severe contrast reactions.Academic radiology 07/2010; 17(7):934-40. DOI:10.1016/j.acra.2010.03.016 · 1.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Neonatal care occurs in extremely complex and dynamic environments and requires providers to operate under intense time pressure in coordination with multiple disciplines. Teaching the clinical skills requisite to effective practice requires the meticulous application of curricular design principles. Simulation can be used as an effective instructional strategy in achieving learner acquisition and retention of the cognitive, technical, and behavioral skills essential to optimal delivery of care in neonatology.Seminars in perinatology 04/2011; 35(2):59-67. DOI:10.1053/j.semperi.2011.01.004 · 2.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The new Perfusion Simulation Center at the Medical University of South Carolina provides a new level of high fidelity simulation training for perfusion students. A key component is the Orpheus Perfusion Simulator which is a computer-driven simulator integrated with the mechanical connections of the heart-lung machine to allow for real time operative procedures and perfusion incidents. Due to the ability to consistently reproduce cardiac surgical scenarios, it is possible to develop both basic perfusion skills as well as advanced emergency skills more effectively than with animal models. The purpose of this paper is to provide details about advanced simulation for perfusionists and to illustrate how simulation can be used to promote the assets of good communication, team work, and surgical awareness. Two sets of four cardiac surgical scenarios were recorded in the perfusion simulation operating room. Scenario team member roles included a cardiac surgeon, an anesthesiologist, a perfusionist and an operating room nurse. The scripted surgical scenarios were viewed by a focus group of students charged with identifying key personality traits of different members of the operating team and to characterize them using a list of descriptive words adapted from the Medical University of South Carolina's Peer Review Tool. In the first set of scenarios, initial scores were negative, with irresponsibility, impatience, and carelessness listed as the top behavioral characteristics leading to human error. In the second set of scenarios, logical, clear-thinking, and attentive were the most common personality traits observed of the effective team members. Simulation has become an invaluable tool for perfusion education and the goal of improving patient safety during cardiopulmonary bypass. The opportunities for advanced training in the perfusion simulation environment will certainly expand in the future.Perfusion 05/2011; 26(5):390-4. DOI:10.1177/0267659111410901 · 0.94 Impact Factor