The heart and other organs Cardiovascular complications of radiation therapy for thoracic malignancies: the role for non-invasive imaging for detection of cardiovascular disease
ABSTRACT Radiation exposure to the thorax is associated with substantial risk for the subsequent development of cardiovascular disease. Thus, the increasing role of radiation therapy in the contemporary treatment of cancer, combined with improving survival rates of patients undergoing this therapy, contributes to a growing population at risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Associated cardiovascular injuries include pericardial disease, coronary artery disease, valvular disease, conduction disease, cardiomyopathy, and medium and large vessel vasculopathy-any of which can occur at varying intervals following irradiation. Higher radiation doses, younger age at the time of irradiation, longer intervals from the time of radiation, and coexisting cardiovascular risk factors all predispose to these injuries. The true incidence of radiation-related cardiovascular disease remains uncertain due to lack of large multicentre studies with a sufficient duration of cardiovascular follow-up. There are currently no consensus guidelines available to inform the optimal approach to cardiovascular surveillance of recipients of thoracic radiation. Therefore, we review the cardiovascular consequences of radiation therapy and focus on the potential role of non-invasive cardiovascular imaging in the assessment and management of radiation-related cardiovascular disease. In doing so, we highlight characteristics that can be used to identify individuals at risk for developing post-radiation cardiovascular disease and propose an imaging-based algorithm for their clinical surveillance.
Article: An Update on Cardio-Oncology[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Over the past decades there have been great advancements in the survival outcome of patients with cancer. As a consequence, treatment regimens are being extended to patient populations, which would not have qualified in the past based on co-morbidities and age. Furthermore, the anti-cancer regimens, which have been and are being used, can cause considerable morbidity and even mortality. In fact, new drugs such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors have yielded unanticipated side effects in frequency and severity. The cardiovascular disease spectrum is an important element in all of these. In order to optimize the outcome of cancer patients with cardiovascular diseases existing prior to cancer treatment or developing as a consequence of it, a new discipline called “cardio-oncology” has evolved over the past few years. Herein we review the latest developments in this field including cardiotoxicities, vascular toxicities, and arrhythmias. This field is taking on more shape as cardiologists, oncologists, and hematologists are forming alliances, programs, and clinics, supported by the development of expert consensus statements on best management approaches and care of the cancer patient with cardiovascular diseases.Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine 10/2014; 24(7). DOI:10.1016/j.tcm.2014.07.003 · 2.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In thoracic irradiation, the maximum radiation dose is restricted by the risk of radiation-induced cardiopulmonary damage and dysfunction limiting tumor control. We showed that radiation-induced sub-clinical cardiac damage and lung damage in rats mutually interact and that combined irradiation intensifies cardiopulmonary toxicity. Unfortunately, current clinical practice does not include preventative measures to attenuate radiation-induced lung or cardiac toxicity. Here, we investigate the effects of the ACE inhibitor captopril on radiation-induced cardiopulmonary damage. After local irradiation of rat heart and/or lungs captopril was administered orally. Cardiopulmonary performance was assessed using biweekly breathing rate measurements. At 8weeks post-irradiation, cardiac hemodynamics were measured, CT scans and histopathology were analyzed. Captopril significantly improved breathing rate and cardiopulmonary density/structure, but only when the heart was included in the radiation field. Consistently, captopril reduced radiation-induced pleural and pericardial effusion and cardiac fibrosis, resulting in an improved left ventricular end-diastolic pressure only in the heart-irradiated groups. Captopril improves cardiopulmonary morphology and function by reducing acute cardiac damage, a risk factor in the development of radiation-induced cardiopulmonary toxicity. ACE inhibition should be evaluated as a strategy to reduce cardiopulmonary complications induced by radiotherapy to the thoracic area. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.Radiotherapy and Oncology 11/2014; 114(1). DOI:10.1016/j.radonc.2014.11.017 · 4.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The care for patients with cancer has advanced greatly over the past decades. A combination of earlier cancer diagnosis and greater use of traditional and new systemic treatments has decreased cancer-related mortality. Effective cancer therapies, however, can result in short- and long-term comorbidities that can decrease the net clinical gain by affecting quality of life and survival. In particular, cardiovascular complications of cancer treatments can have a profound effect on the health of patients with cancer and are more common among those with recognized or unrecognized underlying cardiovascular diseases. A new discipline termed cardio-oncology has thus evolved to address the cardiovascular needs of patients with cancer and optimize their care in a multidisciplinary approach. This review provides a brief introduction and background on this emerging field and then focuses on its practical aspects including cardiovascular risk assessment and prevention before cancer treatment, cardiovascular surveillance and therapy during cancer treatment, and cardiovascular monitoring and management after cancer therapy. The content of this review is based on a literature search of PubMed between January 1, 1960, and February 1, 2014, using the search terms cancer, cardiomyopathy, cardiotoxicity, cardio-oncology, chemotherapy, heart failure, and radiation.Mayo Clinic Proceedings 09/2014; 89(9):1287–1306. DOI:10.1016/j.mayocp.2014.05.013 · 5.81 Impact Factor