IgG4-related disease of the ureter: Report of two cases and review of the literature
IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a recently recognized multi-organ fibro-inflammatory lesion characterized by elevated IgG4 serum levels and mass-forming lesions. This condition shows similar histological features independently of the site of origin including storiform fibrosis, obliterative phlebitis, and dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate with a conspicuous IgG4-positive plasma cell component. Since this disease has only recently been categorized as a single specific nosologic entity, lesions with these typical morphological features have previously been named in different ways, creating some confusion and making it difficult to identify cases published in the literature. Lesions with features suggesting IgG4-RDs have very rarely been reported in the ureter, and they have been named using the terms "inflammatory pseudotumor" and "idiopathic segmental ureteritis." Herein, we describe the clinicopathological features of ureteral IgG4-RD found in two different patients. An 82-year-old female and a 77-year-old male underwent ureteral resection due to severe ureteral wall thickness and lumen stenosis suggestive of urothelial carcinoma. However, histological examinations showed transmural fibro-inflammatory lesions, with abundant IgG4 plasma cells intermixed with histiocytes, lymphocytes, fibroblasts, and scattered eosinophils. We have also accurately reviewed the literature in order to identify, among lesions diagnosed with different names, examples of ureteral IgG4-related lesions to give the reader a comprehensive overview of this relatively rare inflammatory disease. We suggest using the name "ureteral IgG4-RD" for those lesions showing the same morphological features as IgG4-RDs located elsewhere.
Available from: Jan Laco
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ABSTRACT: Retroperitoneal fibrosis (RF) is a rare disease characterized by inflammation and fibrosis of retroperitoneal soft tissues. It is classified into two types: idiopathic (iRF) and secondary (sRF). The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between iRF and IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) and to eventually extend the clinicopathological features of this condition by analysis of the sample comprising six iRF and six sRF patients. The iRF patients included four males and two females, aged 12-62 years (median 55 years). Two lesions were periaortic, one was periureteral, and three cases showed both periaortic and periureteral localization. Two patients had increased serum levels of IgG4. None of the patients developed any manifestation of IgG4-RD during the follow-up period ranging for 15-133 months (median 43 months). Microscopically, in two iRF cases, fibrosis was highly cellular encircling the vessels, nerves, and paraganglia. Phlebitis was found in all cases and being obliterative in four. Lymphocytic inflammation with formation of follicles and plasma cell infiltration were scored as severe in five iRF cases. The numbers of IgG-positive plasma cells ranged 0-373 per 1 HPF (high power field; median 132) and of IgG4-positive plasma cells 0-238 per 1 HPF (median 91). The IgG4/IgG ratio values ranged 0.38-0.74 (median 0.68). Two of the iRF cases were diagnosed as definite and three cases as probable IgG4-RD. To the contrary, none of the sRF cases met the diagnostic criteria for either definite, probable, or possible IgG4-related disease. Our results indicate that a substantial portion of iRF cases, including some of very rare pediatric cases, is a manifestation of IgG4-RD.
Archiv für Pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für Klinische Medicin 09/2013; 463(5). DOI:10.1007/s00428-013-1480-7 · 2.65 Impact Factor
The Journal of urology 01/2014; 191(4). DOI:10.1016/j.juro.2014.01.015 · 4.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: IgG4 related disease (IgG4RD) is a recently recognised condition characterised by mass forming lesions associated with storiform fibrosis, obliterative phlebitis, lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate rich in IgG4 positive plasma cells and elevated serum IgG4 levels. Although rare, mammary involvement has been reported as IgG4 related sclerosing mastitis, the morphological counterpart of a growing family of IgG4 related diseases. A total of 17 cases belonging to mass forming benign inflammatory breast lesions such as plasma cell mastitis, granulomatous lobular mastitis, non-specific mastitis and inflammatory pseudotumour were investigated as a possible member of IgG4 related sclerosing mastitis. Clinical, radiological, histopathological and immunohistochemistry findings were noted in all cases. Cases diagnosed as inflammatory pseudotumour showed all the histopathological features of IgG4RD along with increased number of IgG4 positive plasma cells and IgG4/IgG ratio >40%. However, only a few IgG4 positive cells were seen in plasma cell mastitis, granulomatous lobular mastitis and non-specific mastitis cases. These cases also did not fulfill the morphological criteria for the diagnosis of IgG4 related diseases. IgG4RD should be excluded in plasma cell rich lesions diagnosed on core biopsies by IgG4 immunostaining. This can avoid unnecessary surgery as IgG4 related diseases respond to simple and effective steroid treatment.
Pathology 12/2014; 47(1). DOI:10.1097/PAT.0000000000000187 · 2.19 Impact Factor
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