Aggregate Risk Score Based on Markers of Inflammation, Cell Stress, and Coagulation Is an Independent Predictor of Adverse Cardiovascular Outcomes
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To determine an aggregate, pathway- specific risk score for enhanced prediction of death and myocardial infarction (MI). BACKGROUND: Activation of inflammatory, coagulation, and cellular stress pathways contribute to atherosclerotic plaque rupture. We hypothesized that an aggregate risk score comprised of biomarkers involved in these different pathways--high sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrin degradation products (FDP), and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) levels--would be a powerful predictor of death and MI. METHODS: Serum levels of CRP, FDP and HSP70 were measured in 3,415 consecutive patients with suspected or confirmed CAD undergoing cardiac catheterization. Survival analyses were performed with models adjusted for established risk factors. RESULTS: Median follow-up was 2.3 years. Hazard ratios (HRs) for all-cause death and MI based on cut-points were as follows: for CRP ≥3.0 mg/L, HR=1.61HSP70 >0.625 ng/mL, HR= 2.26; and FDP ≥1.0 μg/ml, HR=1.62 (p <0.0001 for all). An aggregate biomarker score between 0 and 3 was calculated based on these cut-points. Compared to the group with 0 score, HRs for all-cause death and MI were 1.83, 3.46, and 4.99 for those with scores of 1, 2, and 3, respectively (p for each: <0.001). Annual event rates were 16.3% for the 4.2% of subjects with a score of 3 compared to 2.4% in 36.4% subjects with a score of 0. The C-Statistic and Net Reclassification improved (p<0.0001) with the addition of the biomarker score. CONCLUSIONS: An aggregate score based on serum levels of CRP, FDP and HSP70 is a predictor of future risk of death and MI in patients with suspected or known CAD.
SourceAvailable from: Abdul Wahab Hritani[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Objective: Stromal derived factor-1α/CXCL12 is a chemoattractant responsible for homing of progenitor cells to ischemic tissues. We aimed to investigate the association of plasma CXCL12 with long-term cardiovascular outcomes in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods: 785 patients aged: 63 ± 12 undergoing coronary angiography were independently enrolled into discovery (N = 186) and replication (N = 599) cohorts. Baseline levels of plasma CXCL12 were measured using Quantikine CXCL12 ELISA assay (R&D systems). Patients were followed for cardiovascular death and/or myocardial infarction (MI) for a mean of 2.6 yrs. Cox proportional hazard was used to determine independent predictors of cardiovascular death/MI. Results: The incidence of cardiovascular death/MI was 13% (N = 99). High CXCL12 level based on best discriminatory threshold derived from the ROC analysis predicted risk of cardiovascular death/MI (HR = 4.81, p = 1 × 10(-6)) independent of traditional risk factors in the pooled cohort. Addition of CXCL12 to a baseline model was associated with a significant improvement in c-statistic (AUC: 0.67-0.73, p = 0.03). Addition of CXCL12 was associated with correct risk reclassification of 40% of events and 10.5% of non-events. Similarly for the outcome of cardiovascular death, the addition of the CXCL12 to the baseline model was associated with correct reclassification of 20.7% of events and 9% of non-events. These results were replicated in two independent cohorts. Conclusion: Plasma CXCL12 level is a strong independent predictor of adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with CAD and improves risk reclassification. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.Atherosclerosis 10/2014; 238(1):113-118. DOI:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2014.10.094 · 3.97 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We investigated whether and to what extent the ratio between circulating fibrinogen (Fg) and its degradation products (FDP) reflects the severity of coronary artery disease (CAD) in type 2 diabetic patients. Plasma levels of Fg and FDP were determined, and Fg/FDP ratio was calculated in 344 consecutive patients with type 2 diabetes and chest pain on exertion undergoing coronary angiography. The severity of CAD was evaluated by the number of significant CAD (>50% luminal diameter narrowing) and Gensini score. Plasma Fg was higher, but Fg/FDP ratio was lower in patients with significant CAD (n = 255) compared with those without (n = 89), due to a disproportionate increase in FDP. Fg and FDP correlated positively, while Fg/FDP ratio negatively, with the number of diseased coronary arteries and the tertile of Gensini score (all P values for trend < 0.01). After adjusting for age, sex, risk factors for CAD, lipid profiles, glycosylated hemoglobin A1c, creatinine, leukocyte count, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, Fg/FDP ratio remained an independent determinant for multivessel coronary disease (MVD) (odds ratio [OR], 0.869; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.788-0.958, P = 0.005) and high tertile of Gensini score (OR, 0.797, 95% CI, 0.682-0.930, P = 0.004). The area under the curve of Fg/FDP ratio was larger than that of Fg for predicting the presence of MVD (0.647 vs. 0.563, P = 0.048) and Gensini score ≥ 30 (0.656 vs. 0.538, P = 0.026). Elevated plasma Fg and FDP level and reduced Fg/FDP ratio are associated with presence of CAD, and Fg/FDP ratio is superior to Fg in reflecting severe coronary atherosclerosis for patients with type 2 diabetes.
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ABSTRACT: Background: Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a novel biomarker released from leukocytes and endothelial cells that has been associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that plasma suPAR level is an independent predictor of coronary microvascular function. Methods: Coronary blood flow velocity and plasma suPAR levels were evaluated in patients with non-obstructive coronary artery disease. Coronary flow reserve (CFR) was calculated as the ratio of hyperemic to basal average peak blood flow velocity and coronary microvascular dysfunction was defined as CFR ≤ 2.0 in the setting of a fractional flow reserve value of ≥0.75. Plasma suPAR levels were measured using ELISA technique. The association between suPAR and CFR was investigated using univariate and multivariate regression analyses. Results: In 66 patients, 47% were men, 26% had diabetes, 68% had hypertension and 76% had dyslipidemia. Mean age was 55 ± 12 years and median suPAR level 2.82 (2.08–3.40) ng/mL. Plasma suPAR levels correlated with age (r = 0.31, p = 0.01), body mass index (r = 0.25, p = 0.04) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) (r = 0.33, p = 0.009). While median suPAR level was not significantly different in patients with different cardiovascular risk factors, patients on statin therapy had significantly higher suPAR level (p = 0.03). SuPAR correlated negatively with CFR and, after multivariate adjustment for established cardiovascular risk factors, medications profiles and hs-CRP, suPAR remained an independent predictor of CFR (B = −0.30, p = 0.04), indicating an independent association between suPAR level and coronary microvascular function. Conclusions: In this cross-sectional study, plasma suPAR level was an independent predictor of coronary microvascular function. Larger prospective clinical trials are warranted to investigate the prognostic value of this novel biomarker and the role of immune dysregulation in coronary microvascular disease.Atherosclerosis 03/2015; 239(1). DOI:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2014.12.025 · 3.97 Impact Factor