Septicemia following rotavirus gastroenteritis
ABSTRACT Rotavirus gastroenteritis is a prevalent childhood illness rarely complicated by secondary bacterial sepsis. Although there are case reports of septicemia after rotavirus infection, there are no recent reviews on this topic.
To add new cases of septicemia after rotavirus to the literature, review the few cases of septicemia after rotavirus that have been reported, calculate the incidence of septicemia in children hospitalized for rotavirus gastroenteritis, and discuss the characteristics of septicemia after rotavirus infection and implications for current pediatric practice.
We identified children whose illness was complicated by septicemia from among all hospitalizations at our facility for rotavirus gastroenteritis from May 1999 through May 2010. We also review the few cases reported in the English literature.
We identified two cases of septicemia from among 632 hospitalizations for rotavirus gastroenteritis in this time period, for an incidence rate of 0.32%, which is comparable to other estimates in the English literature. The typical course for cases of bacterial superinfection involves a second peak of high fever; other clinical signs are variable.
Septicemia after rotavirus gastroenteritis is a rare but dangerous entity. Early identification of a child developing bacterial superinfection after rotavirus, as in any case of sepsis, is of the utmost importance, as is obtaining blood cultures in a child with a rotavirus infection and a second fever spike.
- SourceAvailable from: PubMed Central
Article: Pediatric sepsis[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Sepsis is the leading cause of death in children worldwide. Although the diagnosis and management of sepsis in infants and children is largely influenced by studies done in adults, there are important considerations relevant for pediatrics. This article highlights pediatric-specific issues related to the definition of sepsis and its epidemiology and management. We review how the capacity of the immune system to respond to infection develops over early life. We also bring attention to primary immune deficiencies presenting in children with recurrent infections of specific types of organisms. The management of pediatric sepsis must be tailored to the child's age and immune capacity, and to the site, severity, and source of the infection. It is important for clinicians to be aware of infection-related syndromes that primarily affect children. Although children in developed countries are more likely to survive severe infections than adults, many survivors have chronic health impairments.Virulence 11/2013; 5(1). DOI:10.4161/viru.27045 · 4.22 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background: Gastrointestinal infections are caused by a broad spectrum of pathogens. Conventional diagnostic procedures are resource and time consuming due to single pathogen testing, often in different laboratories. Method: We analyzed 312 consecutive stool samples from pediatric patients (n = 127) with gastroenteritis or from adult travelers returning from the tropics with suspected parasite infestation (n = 185) using commercial multiplex nucleic acid amplification testing (NAT) (xTAG gastrointestinal pathogen panel, Luminex) covering 15 diarrhea-causing pathogens. The results of the positive samples and a representative number of negative samples were compared to standard methods, including NAT, direct antigen detection (DAD), bacterial culture and microscopy. Results: Of the 185 samples from adult travelers, 21 (11 %) were multiplexNAT-positive, with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (4 %) being the predominant pathogen. Microscopic examination revealed Blastocystis hominis in 23 % not covered by the panel. MultiplexNAT scored positive in 66 pediatric samples (52 %), with rotavirus (27 %) being the most prevalent. All adenovirus-, rotavirus-, Clostridium difficile- and Cryptosporidium-positive samples were confirmed in external laboratories, but only 40 % of norovirus- and 29 % of Giardia-positive samples. Analysis of frozen specimens by bacterial culture showed the highest discrepancies with the multiplexNAT. Conclusion: Our study demonstrates broad detection of relevant gastroenteritis pathogens by multiplexNAT with a short turnaround time. This is important for diagnosis, infection control and empiric management of gastroenteritis patients, but may be selectively complemented by bacterial culture and resistance testing.Infection 07/2014; 42(6). DOI:10.1007/s15010-014-0656-7 · 2.62 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Evidence suggests that specific probiotics may be antagonistic to enteric pathogens and enhance immunity, and thus, provide a means of preventing or treating diarrheal diseases. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of probiotic strains isolated from Koreans for the treatment of viral gastroenteritis in young children and against rotavirus in vitro. In vitro antiviral activities of probiotic isolates on rotavirus infection were investigated in the Vero cell using a plaque reduction assay. Then several probiotic strains with the high antiviral activity were chosen for further clinical trials. Twenty-nine pediatric patients who presented with symptoms of viral gastroenteritis were enrolled in a double-blind trial and randomly assigned at admission to receive six probiotic strains (Bifidobacterium longum, B. lactis, Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. rhamnosus, L. plantarum, and Pediococcus pentosaceus) at a dose of 10(9) colony forming units/g or a comparable placebo twice daily for 1week. Of the tested probiotic strains, B. longum isolated from an infant showed the greatest inhibitory effect and L. acidophilus showed the second-highest inhibitory effect. These probiotics significantly shortened the duration of diarrhea as compared with a placebo (6.1±0.5 vs 7.2±1.9, P=0.030) and did not induce any adverse effects. Our findings suggest that the probiotic strains selected in the present study may be useful for the treatment of acute rotaviral gastroenteritis or as an alternative therapy without adverse effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.Gastroentérologie Clinique et Biologique 11/2014; 39(2). DOI:10.1016/j.clinre.2014.09.006 · 1.64 Impact Factor