Linear eaters turned decelerated: Reduction of a risk for disordered eating?

Karolinska Institutet, Section of Applied Neuroendocrinology, NVS, Mandometer and Mandolean Clinics, AB Mando, Novum, Huddinge S-141 57, Sweden.
Physiology & Behavior (Impact Factor: 3.03). 03/2009; 96(4-5):518-21. DOI: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2008.11.017
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT It has been suggested that restrained eating is a cognitive strategy that an individual uses for control of food intake. If losing control, the restrained eater enters a state of disinhibition and is therefore thought to be at risk for developing eating disorders and obesity. Restrained eaters eat at a constant rate and can therefore also be referred to as linear eaters. Here, we have tested the hypothesis that restrained eating is a state that can be modified by teaching linear eaters to eat at a decelerated rate. Seventeen female linear eaters scored high on a scale for restrained eating. When challenged to eat at an increased rate, a test of disinhibition, the women overate by 16% on average. The women then practiced eating at a decelerated rate by use of feedback from a training curve displayed on a computer screen during the meals. The training occurred three times each week and lasted eight weeks. When re-tested in the absence of feedback, the women ate at a decelerated rate, they did not overeat in the test of disinhibition and they scored lower on the scale for restrained eating. It is suggested that restrained eating is a state that can be reduced by training.

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Available from: Modjtaba Zandian, Dec 16, 2013
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    • "The more negative the value of k, the better the compensation for a brief period of fasting (Figure 1A). Dieting increases the value of k and as k → 0, i.e., as the speed of eating becomes constant, women are less able to adapt their food intake to challenges such as having to eat slowly, they actually eat less food yet experience a higher level of satiety , thereby approaching the anorexic pattern of eating (Zandian et al., 2009). And when experimentally challenged to eat quickly, they approach the behavior of patients with Binge Eating Disorder (Figure 1B; Ioakimidis et al., 2009). "
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    Frontiers in Neuroscience 08/2014; 8. DOI:10.3389/fnins.2014.00234 · 3.70 Impact Factor
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    • ". Prolonged food restriction in men, however, also increases the linearity of eating [25] and men who are being starved also develop the symptoms of anorexia [26]. Because we have previously found that experimental reduction of the speed of eating decreases food intake in linear eaters [3] [4] [5], these observations support our hypothesis that linear eating, particularly if combined with dieting, is a risk factor for the development of the pattern of eating typical of patients with anorexia. Although there are sex differences in the response to fasting (e.g., free fatty acids, glucose, amino acids, gonadotrophins, corticotrophin and leptin [27–35]), none of these agents can be clearly related to the sex difference in eating behavior found in the present study. "
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    ABSTRACT: We determined whether women and men would alter their pattern of food intake after they had deprived themselves of food. We found that women consumed 12% less food after fasting and that men ate 28% more food after fasting. Serving more food on the test day did not increase food intake of women. Women, who ate at a nearly constant rate (linear eaters), consumed less food than those eating at an initially high speed which decreased over the course of the meal (decelerated eaters). Women decreased their food intake after fasting as their eating pattern became more linear. After fasting, men increased their food intake, and the rate at which they ate became more decelerated. Food intake of both women and men was normalized after fasting by providing feedback that encouraged them to eat according to the pattern they showed in the non-fasted condition. The results support the hypothesis that linear eating, and the dieting that elicits linear eating, are risk factors for the development of the abnormal linear eating pattern that characterizes patients with anorexia nervosa. The data also provide additional support for the use of behavioral feedback to normalize the pattern of eating for individuals who have difficulty maintaining their body weight.
    Physiology & Behavior 07/2011; 103(5):530-4. DOI:10.1016/j.physbeh.2011.04.009 · 3.03 Impact Factor
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