Age-associated increases in poor outcomes after traumatic brain injury: a report from the Japan Neurotrauma Data Bank.
ABSTRACT Age is an important factor influencing outcome after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). In general, the older the victim, the higher the probability of a poor outcome. To investigate the mechanism underlying the link between age and outcome, the data for 797 patients enrolled in the Japan Neurotrauma Data Bank (JNTDB), aged 6 years or older, with Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores of 8 or less on admission or deterioration to that level within 48 h of impact were analyzed. Thirty-eight percent of the patients were between the ages of 40 and 69 years, and 24% of the patients were older than 69 years. Older patients had higher rates of mortality and lower rates of favorable outcome. The frequency of mass lesions which were associated with poorer outcomes significantly increased with age, but regardless of the intracranial lesion type, older patients had poorer outcomes. The GCS score and the occurrence of systemic complications did not differ significantly according to age. Multiple systemic injury was less frequent in older patients. The varied occurrence of intracranial lesion types according to age is likely caused by the disparity between the young and aged brain in the progression of secondary brain injury. Alteration in the pathophysiological response, which is related to the development of secondary brain injury in the aging brain, probably contributes to more severe and irreversible brain damage in older patients, and is thus associated with poor outcomes.
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ABSTRACT: Extravasation of blood is associated with intracerebral hemorrhage and head trauma. The mechanism of brain cell injury associated with hemorrhage differs from that due to pure ischemia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute changes after intracerebral injections of proteins that are involved in blood clotting and clot lysis. Sixty-eight adult rats were subjected to stereotaxic intrastriatal injections of normal saline (5 microL), low- (2.5 U/5 microL) and high-dose (25 U/5 microL) thrombin, low- (0.1 microgram/5 microL) and high-dose (1 microgram/5 microL) tissue plasminogen activator, low- (0.05 U/5 microL) and high-dose (0.5 U/5 microL) plasminogen, and low- (0.335 U/5 microL) and high-dose (3.35 U/5 microL) plasmin. Forty-eight hours later rats were perfusion fixed. Brain damage area, eosinophilic neurons, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells, infiltrating neutrophils, CD8a immunoreactive leukocytes, and reactive microglia were quantified. Damage area in striatum, dying cells, inflammatory cells, and microglial reaction were significantly greater after the high-dose plasminogen, plasmin, and thrombin injections. Tissue plasminogen activator injections were associated with mild inflammation. These results suggested that thrombin and plasmin are harmful to brain cells in vivo. Although the doses required to cause damage are relatively great in consideration of the plasma content of these proteins, their pathological effect might be enhanced through synergism with other mechanisms.Stroke 10/2001; 32(9):2164-9. · 6.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effect of age on intensity of care provided to traumatically brain-injured adults and to determine the influence of intensity of care on mortality at discharge and 12 months postinjury, controlling for injury severity. Cohort study using the National Study on the Costs and Outcomes of Trauma (NSCOT) database. Risk ratio and Poisson regression analyses were performed using data weighted according to the population of eligible patients. A total of 18 level 1 and 51 level 2 non-trauma centers located in 14 states in the United States and 1,776 adults aged 25-84 yrs with a diagnosis of traumatic brain injury. Injury severity was determined by the motor component of the Glasgow Coma Scale score, the Injury Severity Score, pupillary reactivity, and presence of midline shift. Factors evaluated as contributing to intensity of care included: admission to the intensive care unit, mechanical ventilation, placement of an intracranial pressure monitor, placement of a jugular bulb catheter, placement of a pulmonary artery catheter, critical care consultation, the number of specialty care consultations, mannitol use, treatment with barbiturate coma, decompressive craniectomy, number of nonneurosurgical procedures performed, the presence of a do-not-resuscitate order, and withdrawal of therapy. Controlling for injury-related factors, sex, and comorbidity, as age increased, the overall likelihood of receiving various interventions decreased. After controlling for injury severity, sex, and comorbidity, factors associated with higher risk of in-hospital death were: being aged 75-84 yrs (relative risk [RR] 1.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13, 1.55), pulmonary artery catheter use (RR 1.56, 95% CI 1.30, 1.86), intubation (RR 4.17, 95% CI 2.28, 7.61), the presence of a do-not-resuscitate order (RR 3.21, 95% CI 2.21, 4.65), and withdrawal of therapy (RR 2.33, 95% CI 1.69, 3.23). In contrast, a higher number of specialty care consultations (surgical consults: RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.54, 0.74; medical consults: RR 0.87, 95% CI 0.79, 0.95; and other consults: RR 0.43, 95% CI 0.26, 0.69) were associated with decreased risk of death. The results were similar for factors associated with death at 12 months, with the exception that the number of medical consultations was not significant, whereas the number of nonneurosurgical procedures performed was associated with lower risk of death (RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.92, 0.99), as was obtaining critical care consultation services (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.71, 1.0). There is a lower intensity of care provided to older adults with traumatic brain injury. Although the specific contributions of specialists to patient management are unknown, their consultation was associated with decreased risk of in-hospital death and death within 12 months. It is important that careproviders have an increased awareness of the potential contribution of multidisciplinary clinical decision making to patient outcomes in older traumatically brain-injured patients.Critical care medicine 02/2008; 36(1):282-90. · 6.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this prospective study was to estimate annual incidences of hospitalization for severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) (maximum Abbreviated Injury Score in the head region [HAIS] 4 or 5) in a defined population of 2.8 million. Severe TBI patients were included in the emergency departments in the 19 hospitals of the region. A prospective data form was completed with initial neurologic state, computed tomographic scan lesions, associated injuries, length of unconsciousness, and length of stay in acute care centers. Outcome at the time the patient left acute hospitalization was retrospectively assessed from medical notes. During the 1-year period (1996), 497 residents fulfilled the inclusion criteria, leading to an annual incidence rate of 17.3 per 100,000 population; 58.1% were HAIS5. Mortality rate was 5.2 per 100,000. Men accounted for 71.4% of cases. Median age was 44 years, with a quarter of patients more than 70 years old. Traffic accidents were the most frequent causes (48.3%), but falls accounted for 41.8% of all patients. Age and severity were different according to the major categories of external causes. In HAIS5 patients, 86.5% were considered as comatose (coma lasting more than 24 hours or leading to immediate death) but only 60.9% had an initial Glasgow Coma Scale score < 9. In the HAIS4 group, 7.2% had an initial Glasgow Coma Scale score < 9. Fatality rates were 30.0% in the whole study group, 7.7% in HAIS4, 12.8% in HAIS5 without coma, and 51.2% in HAIS5 with coma. This study shows a decrease in severe TBI incidence when results are compared with another study conducted 10 years earlier in the same region. This is because of a decrease in traffic accidents. However, this results in an increase in the proportion of falls in elderly patients and an increase in the median age in our patients. This increased age influences the mortality rate.The Journal of trauma 09/2001; 51(3):481-9. · 2.35 Impact Factor