Developments in stem cells: Implications for future joint replacements

Department of Orthopaedics, Southern General Hospital, 1345 Govan Road, Glasgow G514TF, UK.
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part H Journal of Engineering in Medicine (Impact Factor: 1.33). 03/2013; 227(3):275-83. DOI: 10.1177/0954411912471492
Source: PubMed


Will stem cell research reverse the projected sevenfold increase in primary and revision knee replacements expected in the United States between 2005 and 2030? A focus on prevention and treatment of osteoarthritis may end the need for primary joint replacements. A more likely scenario can be described as slow and incremental changes in the prevention and treatment of osteoarthritis, accompanied by the continuing development of implant technology. Since the discovery of stem cells in the 1950s, research has increased exponentially. Expanded autologous chondrocytes, and more recently ex vivo expanded skeletal stem cells, are currently injected into osteochondral defects in the hope of regenerating cartilage and halting progression towards osteoarthritis. In addition, mesenchymal stem cells are being injected into human joints as a treatment for osteoarthritis despite a lack of quantitative research. Concurrently, stem cell research continues to contribute to chemical and topographical advancements in implant design. Advances in co-culture techniques mean it is possible that biologic articular replacements will develop prior to the cessation of the need for arthroplasty and radically change the nature of joint replacements. Whether it is through implant design or a potential cure for the pain attributable to osteoarthritis, as we hope to show in this 'forward look article', it is our opinion that stem cells will certainly impact future joint replacement.

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    ABSTRACT: Substantial effort has been directed at the development of small joint prostheses for the hand. Despite advances in prosthetic joint design, outcomes have been relatively unchanged over the past 60 years. Pain relief and range of motion achieved after surgery have yet to mirror the success of large joint arthroplasty. Innovations in biotechnology and stem cell applications for damaged joint surfaces may someday make prostheses obsolete. The purpose of this review is to describe the current status, ongoing advances, and future of small joint arthroplasty of the hand.
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