Developments in stem cells: Implications for future joint replacements
ABSTRACT Will stem cell research reverse the projected sevenfold increase in primary and revision knee replacements expected in the United States between 2005 and 2030? A focus on prevention and treatment of osteoarthritis may end the need for primary joint replacements. A more likely scenario can be described as slow and incremental changes in the prevention and treatment of osteoarthritis, accompanied by the continuing development of implant technology. Since the discovery of stem cells in the 1950s, research has increased exponentially. Expanded autologous chondrocytes, and more recently ex vivo expanded skeletal stem cells, are currently injected into osteochondral defects in the hope of regenerating cartilage and halting progression towards osteoarthritis. In addition, mesenchymal stem cells are being injected into human joints as a treatment for osteoarthritis despite a lack of quantitative research. Concurrently, stem cell research continues to contribute to chemical and topographical advancements in implant design. Advances in co-culture techniques mean it is possible that biologic articular replacements will develop prior to the cessation of the need for arthroplasty and radically change the nature of joint replacements. Whether it is through implant design or a potential cure for the pain attributable to osteoarthritis, as we hope to show in this 'forward look article', it is our opinion that stem cells will certainly impact future joint replacement.
SourceAvailable from: Michael Tanzer[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We have studied the characteristics of bone ingrowth of a new porous tantalum biomaterial in a simple transcortical canine model using cylindrical implants 5 x 10 mm in size. The material was 75% to 80% porous by volume and had a repeating arrangement of slender interconnecting struts which formed a regular array of dodecahedron-shaped pores. We performed histological studies on two types of material, one with a smaller pore size averaging 430 microm at 4, 16 and 52 weeks and the other with a larger pore size averaging 650 microm at 2, 3, 4, 16 and 52 weeks. Mechanical push-out tests at 4 and 16 weeks were used to assess the shear strength of the bone-implant interface on implants of the smaller pore size. The extent of filling of the pores of the tantalum material with new bone increased from 13% at two weeks to between 42% and 53% at four weeks. By 16 and 52 weeks the average extent of bone ingrowth ranged from 63% to 80%. The tissue response to the small and large pore sizes was similar, with regions of contact between bone and implant increasing with time and with evidence of Haversian remodelling within the pores at later periods. Mechanical tests at four weeks indicated a minimum shear fixation strength of 18.5 MPa, substantially higher than has been obtained with other porous materials with less volumetric porosity. This porous tantalum biomaterial has desirable characteristics for bone ingrowth; further studies are warranted to ascertain its potential for clinical reconstructive orthopaedics.The Bone & Joint Journal 10/1999; 81(5):907-14. DOI:10.1302/0301-620X.81B5.9283 · 2.80 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The impaired temporomandibular joint might be the first to benefit from applied tissue engineering techniques because it is small and tissue growth in larger amounts is challenging. Bone and cartilage require different competing environmental conditions to be cultivated in vitro. But coupling both the osteogenic and cartilaginous pathways of mesenchymal stem cell differentiation in homeostasis will be a key essential to grow osteochondral constructs or even the first biological joint replacement in the future. The aim of this study was to test a single source biomaterial and a single source cell type to engineer a biphasic osteochondral construct in vitro for future in vivo implantation. Ultrarapid tissue engineering techniques were used to create the biphasic matrix and primary human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) preconditioned in osteogenic and chondrogenic media were then seeded in opposite portions of the hyper-hydrated collagen gel in order to further substantiate the respective bone-like and cartilage-like layers thus potentially customising the collagen scaffold according to patient needs in regards to future biological joint replacements. After incubation for 7 days to allow cell growth and differentiation, mineralization of the bone-like layer was demonstrated using von Kossa staining and biochemical bone markers. The cartilage-like layer was demonstrated using alcian blue staining and biochemical cartilage markers. Integration of the bone-like and cartilage-like layers to simulate a tidemark layer was achieved through partial setting of the gels. Cell tracking was used to further confirm the establishment of distinct cartilage-like and bone-like areas within the single construct. This is the first report of one homogeneous human MSC population differentiating into dissimilar "bone-like" and "cartilage-like" zones hosted in a biphasic ultrarapid compressed gel phase niche and mimicking a primordial joint-like structure.Journal of cranio-maxillo-facial surgery: official publication of the European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery 07/2011; 39(5):380-6. DOI:10.1016/j.jcms.2010.07.002 · 2.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Full-thickness defects of articular cartilage in the knee have a poor capacity for repair. They may progress to osteoarthritis and require total knee replacement. We performed autologous chondrocyte transplantation in 23 people with deep cartilage defects in the knee. The patients ranged in age from 14 to 48 years and had full-thickness cartilage defects that ranged in size from 1.6 to 6.5 cm2. Healthy chondrocytes obtained from an uninvolved area of the injured knee during arthroscopy were isolated and cultured in the laboratory for 14 to 21 days. The cultured chondrocytes were then injected into the area of the defect. The defect was covered with a sutured periosteal flap taken from the proximal medial tibia. Evaluation included clinical examination according to explicit criteria and arthroscopic examination with a biopsy of the transplantation site. Patients were followed for 16 to 66 months (mean, 39). Initially, the transplants eliminated knee locking and reduced pain and swelling in all patients. After three months, arthroscopy showed that the transplants were level with the surrounding tissue and spongy when probed, with visible borders. A second arthroscopic examination showed that in many instances the transplants had the same macroscopic appearance as they had earlier but were firmer when probed and similar in appearance to the surrounding cartilage. Two years after transplantation, 14 of the 16 patients with femoral condylar transplants had good-to-excellent results. Two patients required a second operation because of severe central wear in the transplants, with locking and pain. A mean of 36 months after transplantation, the results were excellent or good in two of the seven patients with patellar transplants, fair in three, and poor in two; two patients required a second operation because of severe chondromalacia. Biopsies showed that 11 of the 15 femoral transplants and 1 of the 7 patellar transplants had the appearance of hyaline cartilage. Cultured autologous chondrocytes can be used to repair deep cartilage defects in the femorotibial articular surface of the knee joint.New England Journal of Medicine 11/1994; 331(14):889-95. DOI:10.1056/NEJM199410063311401 · 54.42 Impact Factor