Childhood cancer survivors are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease, in part because of adiposity. Whether survivors have healthy diets and whether dietary quality is associated with adiposity among survivors are not known. Survivors and siblings from the Cardiac Risk Factors in Childhood Cancer Survivors Study completed 3-day food records that were used to estimate daily caloric intake relative to recommended and dietary quality using the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI). Medical records were reviewed for cancer therapies. Body composition was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Of 91 childhood cancer survivors and 30 sibling controls, there were no marked differences in mean daily caloric intakes (98% vs. 100% of recommended) or HEI total scores (55.5 vs. 53.3), respectively, with both groups scoring worst for the consumption of dark green vegetables and whole grains. Survivors exposed to cranial irradiation had lower total HEI scores (-6.4, P = 0.01). Among survivors, better dietary quality, as reflected by the total HEI score, was associated with decreasing percent body fat (β = -0.19, P = 0.04). Survivors consume diets similar to their siblings although these diets are only moderately adherent to current guidelines. Decreased dietary quality is associated with higher body fat and receipt of cranial irradiation in survivors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Treatment advances and higher participation rates in clinical trials have rapidly increased the number of survivors of childhood cancer. However, chemotherapy and radiation treatments are cardiotoxic and can cause cardiomyopathy, conduction defects, myocardial infarction, hypertension, stroke, pulmonary oedema, dyspnoea and exercise intolerance later in life. These cardiotoxic effects are often progressive and irreversible, emphasizing a need for effective prevention and treatment to reduce or avoid cardiotoxicity. Medical interventions, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, β-blockers, and growth hormone therapy, might be used to treat cardiotoxicity in childhood cancer survivors. Preventative strategies should include the use of dexrazoxane, which provides cardioprotection without reducing the oncological efficacy of doxorubicin chemotherapy; less-toxic anthracycline derivatives and the use of antioxidant nutritional supplements might also be beneficial. Continuous-infusion doxorubicin provides no benefit over bolus infusion in children. Identifying patient-related (for example, obesity and hypertension) and drug-related (for example, cumulative dose) risk factors for cardiotoxicity could help tailor treatments to individual patients. However, all survivors of childhood cancer are at increased risk of cardiotoxicity, suggesting that survivor screening recommendations for assessment of global risk of premature cardiovascular disease should apply to all survivors. Optimal, evidence-based monitoring strategies and multiagent preventative treatments still need to be identified.
Katrien H J Gaens, Isabel Ferreira, Marjo P H Van De Waarenburg, Marleen M van Greevenbroek, Carla J H van der Kallen, Jacqueline M Dekker, Giel Nijpels, Sander S Rensen, Coen D A Stehouwer, Casper G Schalkwijk
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