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A Abstracción Verbal y Flexibilidad Cognitiva en Esquizofrenia

ABSTRACT Resumen El objetivo del presente estudio fue conocer si existe una relación entre los trastornos formales del pensamiento y la disfunción ejecutiva en la esquizofrenia; mediante la evaluación de la abstracción verbal y la flexibilidad cognitiva. A tal fin, se seleccionaron dos grupos equiparados en edad y nivel de instrucción: un grupo conformado por participantes con el diagnóstico de esquizofrenia y un grupo de comparación a los que se les administraron diversas pruebas neuropsicológicas. Los resultados obtenidos no mostraron diferencias significativas en atención selectiva, memoria de trabajo, abstracción y razonamiento verbal. Se presentaron diferencias significativas en las pruebas de screening y en la prueba del Test de Clasificación de Cartas de Wisconsin (WCST), específicamente en el número de respuestas perseverativas. Es decir, que los participantes con el diagnóstico de esquizofrenia únicamente mostraron un perfil cognitivo diferente al grupo de comparación en la prueba de flexibilidad cognitiva. El grupo esquizofrenia mostró una relación entre el desorden ejecutivo (n·categorías WSCT) y los trastornos del pensamiento (analogías WAIS-III). Se discuten los resultados, en torno al tamaño y heterogeneidad de la muestra, la influencia del nivel de instrucción en las pruebas neuropsicológicas, la validez ecológica de los instrumentos y su especificidad para la patología abordada, los diagnósticos de esquizofrenia, los tipos de esquizofrenia, la información consignada en las historias clínicas, la influencia de la cronicidad y la medicación en las evaluaciones. Se destaca la importancia y la complejidad de la investigación clínica.

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Jun 4, 2014