GA-Responsive Dwarfing Gene Rht12 Affects the Developmental and Agronomic Traits in Common Bread Wheat.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas and College of Agronomy, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, China.
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.53). 04/2013; 8(4):e62285. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0062285
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Opportunities exist for replacing reduced height (Rht) genes Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b with alternative dwarfing genes, such as the gibberellin-responsive gene Rht12, for bread wheat improvement. However, a comprehensive understanding of the effects and mode of action of Rht12 is lacking. In the present study, the effects of Rht12 were characterized by analyzing its effects on seeding vigour, seedling roots, leaf and stem morphology, spike development and carbohydrate assimilation and distribution. This was carried out in the four genotypes of F2:3 lines derived from a cross between Ningchun45 and Karcagi (12) in two experiments of autumn sowing and spring sowing. Rht12 significantly decreased stem length (43%∼48% for peduncle) and leaf length (25%∼30% for flag leaf) while the thickness of the internode walls and width of the leaves were increased. Though the final plant stature was shortened (40%) by Rht12, the seedling vigour, especially coleoptile length and root traits at the seedling stage, were not affected adversely. Rht12 elongated the duration of the spike development phase, improved the proportion of spike dry weight at anthesis and significantly increased floret fertility (14%) in the autumn sowing experiment. However, Rht12 delayed anthesis date by around 5 days and even the dominant Vrn-B1 allele could not compensate this negative effect. Additionally, grain size was reduced with the ability to support spike development after anthesis decreased in Rht12 lines. Finally, grain yield was similar between the dwarf and tall lines in the autumn sowing experiment. Thus, Rht12 could substantially reduce plant height without altering seeding vigour and significantly increase spikelet fertility in the favourable autumn sowing environment. The successful utilization of Rht12 in breeding programs will require careful selection since it might delay ear emergence. Nonetheless, the potential exists for wheat improvement by using Rht12.

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    ABSTRACT: The most common dwarfing genes in wheat, Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b, classified as gibberellin-insensitive (GAI) dwarfing genes due to their reduced response to exogenous GA, have been verified as encoding negative regulators of gibberellin signaling. In contrast, the response of gibberellin-responsive (GAR) dwarfing genes, such as Rht12, to exogenous GA is still unclear and the role of them, if any, in GA biosynthesis or signaling is unknown. The responses of Rht12 to exogenous GA3 were investigated on seedling vigour, spike phenological development, plant height and other agronomic traits, using F2∶3 and F3∶4 lines derived from a cross between Ningchun45 and Karcagi-12 in three experiments. The application of exogenous GA3 significantly increased coleoptile length and seedling leaf 1 length and area. While there was no significant difference between the dwarf and the tall lines at the seedling stage in the responsiveness to GA3, plant height was significantly increased, by 41 cm (53%) averaged across the three experiments, in the GA3-treated Rht12 dwarf lines. Plant height of the tall lines was not affected significantly by GA3 treatment (<10 cm increased). Plant biomass and seed size of the GA3-treated dwarf lines was significantly increased compared with untreated dwarf plants while there was no such difference in the tall lines. GA3-treated Rht12 dwarf plants with the dominant Vrn-B1 developed faster than untreated plants and reached double ridge stage 57 days, 11 days and 50 days earlier and finally flowered earlier by almost 7 days while the GA3-treated tall lines flowering only 1-2 days earlier than the untreated tall lines. Thus, it is clear that exogenous GA3 can break the masking effect of Rht12 on Vrn-B1 and also restore other characters of Rht12 to normal. It suggested that Rht12 mutants may be deficient in GA biosynthesis rather than in GA signal transduction like the GA-insensitive dwarfs.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e86431. · 3.53 Impact Factor

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