Article

Avoidant restrictive food intake disorder: An illustrative case example.

Consultant Clinical Psychologist and Honorary Senior Lecturer, Department of Child and Adolescent Mental Health, Great Ormond Street Hospital, London, United Kingdom WC1N 3J, UK. .
International Journal of Eating Disorders (Impact Factor: 2.88). 07/2013; 46(5):420-3. DOI:10.1002/eat.22093
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) is a new diagnostic category in DSM-5. Although replacing Feeding Disorder of Infancy or Early Childhood, it is not restricted to childhood presentations. In keeping with the broader aim of revising and updating criteria and text to better reflect lifespan issues and clinical expression across the age range, ARFID is a diagnosis relevant to children, adolescents, and adults. This case example of a 13-year old boy with ARFID illustrates key issues in diagnosis and treatment planning. The issues discussed are not exhaustive, but serve as a guide for central diagnostic and treatment issues to be considered by the clinician. It is anticipated that the inclusion of specific criteria for ARFID as a category within Feeding and Eating Disorders in DSM-5 will stimulate research into its typology, prevalence, and incidence in different populations and facilitate the development of effective, evidence-based interventions for this patient group. © 2013 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2013; 46:420-423).

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    ABSTRACT: Purpose To evaluate the DSM-5 diagnosis of Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) in children and adolescents with poor eating not associated with body image concerns. Methods A retrospective case-control study of 8–18-year-olds, using a diagnostic algorithm, compared all cases with ARFID presenting to seven adolescent-medicine eating disorder programs in 2010 to a randomly selected sample with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). Demographic and clinical information were recorded. Results Of 712 individuals studied, 98 (13.8%) met ARFID criteria. Patients with ARFID were younger than those with AN (n = 98) or BN (n = 66), (12.9 vs. 15.6 vs. 16.5 years), had longer durations of illness (33.3 vs. 14.5 vs. 23.5 months), were more likely to be male (29% vs. 15% vs. 6%), and had a percent median body weight intermediate between those with AN or BN (86.5 vs. 81.0 and 107.5). Patients with ARFID included those with selective (picky) eating since early childhood (28.7%); generalized anxiety (21.4%); gastrointestinal symptoms (19.4%); a history of vomiting/choking (13.2%); and food allergies (4.1%). Patients with ARFID were more likely to have a comorbid medical condition (55% vs. 10% vs. 11%) or anxiety disorder (58% vs. 35% vs. 33%) and were less likely to have a mood disorder (19% vs. 31% vs. 58%). Conclusions Patients with ARFID were demographically and clinically distinct from those with AN or BN. They were significantly underweight with a longer duration of illness and had a greater likelihood of comorbid medical and/or psychiatric symptoms.
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Rachel Bryant-Waugh