The association of self-perception of body fat changes and quality of life in the Women's Interagency HIV Study
ABSTRACT Abstract Body fat changes are of concern to HIV-seropositive adults on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Studies examining the association of body fat changes and quality of life (QOL) in the setting of HIV infection have been conducted predominately in men. We examined the relationship of self-perceived body fat change with QOL among 1671 HAART-using HIV-seropositive women (mean age 40±8 years; 54% African-American, 24% reporting <95% HAART adherence) from the Women's Interagency HIV Study. Self-perception of any fat loss was associated with lower overall QOL. Report of any peripheral fat loss was strongly associated with nearly all QOL domains (i.e., physical functioning, role functioning, energy/fatigue, social functioning, pain, emotional well-being, health perception, and perceived health index) except cognitive functioning, whereas report of any central fat loss was significantly associated with lower social and cognitive functioning. Report of any central fat gain was associated with lower overall QOL, but only physical functioning, energy/fatigue, and cognitive functioning were significantly affected. A significant association of report of any peripheral fat gain with overall QOL was not observed, however, peripheral fat gain was significantly associated with lower physical functioning and pain. We found that any report of fat loss, especially in peripheral body sites was associated with lower QOL, as was any report of central fat gain. Ultimately health providers and patients need to be informed of these associations so as to better support HIV-seropositive women who live with these effects.
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ABSTRACT: Current antiretroviral therapy has lead to longer survival in patients infected with HIV, but it is also associated with new and important problems. Body fat redistribution and metabolic abnormalities, the so-called lipodystrophy syndrome, are among the most prevalent and worrisome ones. While an increasing number of patients infected with HIV are becoming affected by this syndrome, the pathogenesis of this syndrome and how to prevent and treat the problem all remain largely unknown. Body fat changes stigmatise the bodies of patients infected with HIV giving them a similar look to that seen in patients some years ago when the wasting syndrome was more prevalent and HIV infection was ultimately fatal. The psychological impact of body fat changes may be severe enough to affect a patients' desire to continue with antiretroviral therapy. Metabolic abnormalities, probably with the exception of symptomatic diabetes mellitus and hypertriglyceridaemia-induced pancreatitis, do not have an immediate impact on the quality of the lives of patients with HIV. However, their potential long term cardiovascular and bone consequences may increase the morbidity and the mortality of patients infected with HIV through noninfectious diseases. The impact of lipodystrophy on patients infected with HIV is not readily captured with the classic instruments used to measure quality of life and hence it is necessary to modify them urgently. Though treating lipodystrophy seems fully justified, there is no proven treatment for this problem, although a number of treatments have been used with varying success. Despite the recognition that lipodystrophy may have important psychological repercussions, the best psychological approach for this problem is not known at present. Although lipodystrophy has its own peculiarities, existing knowledge about how to psychologically help other patients with deforming body changes might be of help for patients infected with HIV, or at least may act as a starting point.Drug Safety 02/2001; 24(3):157-66. DOI:10.2165/00002018-200124030-00001
Journal of the American Dietetic Association 02/2001; 101(1):13-5.
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ABSTRACT: For clinicians managing weight loss in patients with HIV, it would be useful to understand how changes in lean body mass (LBM) effect physical functioning, and whether LBM is more strongly related to physical functioning than total body weight (TBW). To determine the relationship of changes in LBM and changes in total body weight (TBW) to changes in self-reported physical functioning in men and women with HIV infection. Study design was longitudinal analysis of 1474 patient-intervals (each interval was approximately 6 months long) in 486 persons. Patients were participants in Nutrition for Healthy Living, a cohort study of HIV positive persons in Massachusetts and Rhode Island. The main outcome measure was change in self-reported physical functioning. Of the 1,474 intervals, 1,165 were contributed by men and 309 by women. The mean CD4 count for the 1,474 intervals was 383 cells/ micro L. In men, 5 kg changes in LBM and TBW were associated with 2.2 (95% confidence interval, 0.9, 3.4, P= 0.001) and 2.6 (95% confidence interval, 1.3, 3.9, P= 0.0002) point changes in physical functioning (on a 100-point scale), respectively, after adjusting for covariates. The relationships of changes in LBM and TBW to changes in physical functioning were linear. In women, there were no significant relationships between changes in LBM or TBW to changes in physical functioning. In this longitudinal analysis of relatively healthy persons with HIV infection, changes in LBM and TBW were significantly related to changes in physical functioning in men, but the magnitude of the relationship was small. In women, changes in LBM and TBW were not related to changes in physical functioning. Our data suggest that it is not necessary to measure body composition (lean and fat compartments) to understand the impact of changes in weight on physical functioning - it is sufficient to follow total body weight.HIV Medicine 11/2002; 3(4):263-70. DOI:10.1046/j.1468-1293.2002.00122.x