Gianfreda L., Sannino F., Violante A. (1995) Pesticide effects on the activity of free, immobilized and soil invertase. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 27, 1201-1208.
ABSTRACT The influence of four pesticides (atrazine, carbaryl, glyphosate and paraquat) on the catalytic behaviour of invertase, either free, immobilized on inorganic and organic soil colloids or in soils, was investigated. Invertase was immobilized on a clean clay (montmorillonite), an organic compound (tannic acid), and on synthetic organo-mineral [Al(OH)x-tannate and Al(OH)x-tannate-montmorillonite] complexes. Soils with different physico-chemical properties were utilized. The effects of pesticides on invertase performance depended not only on the nature of the pesticide but also on the “status” of the enzyme, i.e. if free, immobilized or in soil. Glyphosate and paraquat enhanced the activity of invertase either free or immobilized on montmorillonite and both pesticides behaved as mixed-type non-essential activators. Activity decreases were instead measured for the enzyme immobilized on organic and organo-mineral matrices. Contrasting results (increases, decreases and no effects) were detected for soil invertase. A general inhibition effect was exhibited by methanol on free, immobilized or soil invertase, but the extent of inhibition depended on the enzyme microenvironment. The addition of atrazine and carbaryl caused partial increases of free and immobilized invertase activity, whereas carbaryl further reduced enzymatic activity in some soils.
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ABSTRACT: In the second half of the twentieth century, the indiscriminate release of xenobiotic chemicals of different chemical and structural complexity into the environment provoked serious and most often irreversible alterations of the natural environmental balance. Indeed, soil contamination by highly toxic compounds has greatly increased, with negative, irreversible effects on soil quality and health. Several chemical, biological, and biochemical soil properties have been profoundly altered, and their main effect has been the continuous loss of soil functions in sustaining the survival of living organisms. Among chemical pollutants, compounds like pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons arrive to the soil from different anthropic sources and have high toxicity toward humans, plants, and animals. Assessing the soil quality is a basic requirement for sustainable land use. Soil microbial and biochemical activities are sensitive to several natural and human-induced changes and may provide a helpful tool to assess soil status, its quality, and its productivity. This article is a survey of the mutual interactions establishing in a soil among xenobiotic substances with particular reference to pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and microbial and enzymatic soil activities.Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology 05/2008; 38(4). · 3.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The heavy use of organophosphorus pesticides in northeastern China strongly affects the ecological functions and the quality of the soil environment. In this work, a 30-day soil incubation experiment was conducted to evaluate the potential of using soil available P and the activities of soil dehydrogenase and acid phosphatase as indicators of the application of methamidophos and glyphosate. Two kinds of unpolluted soils, phaiozem and burozem, were selected as the test soils. The higher application rate of organophosphorus pesticide to the two soils caused more release of PO4 which finally entered the soil available P pool, suggesting that soil available P is one of the effective chemical markers for biodegradation of organophosphorus pesticides. Methamidophos exhibited a significant inhibitory effect on the activity of soil dehydrogenase. The extent of enzyme inhibition was almost positively correlated with the insecticide concentration, and the enzyme activity was gradually restored after day 15. However, its effect on soil acid phosphatase activity (stimulation or inhibition) seemed to be indefinite, and varied with the application rate, soil type, and incubation time. In the case of glyphosate, soil acid phosphatase activity was depressed significantly and the depressing extent could be a function of herbicide concentration and incubation time, but soil dehydrogenase activity showed an irregular variation with the herbicide application rate and soil type. In general, dehydrogenase activity was a good biochemical indicator for the biodegradation of methamidophos, but for glyphosate biodegradation the indicator was acid phosphatase activity.Soil and Sediment Contamination 08/2011; 20(6):688-701. · 0.58 Impact Factor
- CHINESE JOURNAL OF ECO-AGRICULTURE 01/2009; 16(6):1504-1507.