Preoperative serum levels of serum VEGF-C is associated with distant metastasis in colorectal cancer patients.
ABSTRACT Vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) is one of the most potent lymphangiogenic members of the VEGF family that has been associated with lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). In this study, we evaluated the relationship of preoperative serum VEGF-C (sVEGF-C) and survival in CRC patients.
sVEGF-C levels were determined, prior to resection, in a cohort of 120 newly presenting patients with CRC by quantitative ELISA.
Patients who had positive lymph node involvement and higher Dukes' staging (C&D) were associated with shorter time to metastases as expected (p = 0.002 and 0.001, respectively). Patients with distant metastasis had significantly lower levels of sVEGF-C than those without histopathologically proven disease (p = 0.004). However, there was no significant difference in the median sVEGF-C level in patients with or without lymph node metastatic involvement (91 pg/ml vs. 124 pg/ml; p = 0.81). Patients with a sVEGF-C concentration less than the median value (103 pg/ml) showed a poorer overall survival than patients with sVEGF-C levels greater than the median; but this was not statistically significant.
In this study, low sVEGF-C levels are associated with distant metastasis; hence, preoperative levels may aid in the selection of CRC patients who require further investigation.
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ABSTRACT: VEGFR surface localization plays a critical role in converting extracellular VEGF signaling towards angiogenic outcomes, and the quantitative characterization of these parameters is critical for advancing computational models; however the levels of these receptors on blood vessels is currently unknown. Therefore our aim is to quantitatively determine the VEGFR localization on endothelial cells from mouse hindlimb skeletal muscles. We contextualize this VEGFR quantification through comparison to VEGFR-levels on cells in vitro. Using quantitative fluorescence we measure and compare the levels of VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 on endothelial cells isolated from C57BL/6 and BALB/c gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior hindlimb muscles. Fluorescence measurements are calibrated using beads with known numbers of phycoerythrin molecules. The data show a 2-fold higher VEGFR1 surface localization relative to VEGFR2 with 2,000-3,700 VEGFR1/endothelial cell and 1,300-2,000 VEGFR2/endothelial cell. We determine that endothelial cells from the highly glycolytic muscle, tibialis anterior, contain 30% higher number of VEGFR1 surface receptors than gastrocnemius; BALB/c mice display ∼17% higher number of VEGFR1 than C57BL/6. When we compare these results to mouse fibroblasts in vitro, we observe high levels of VEGFR1 (35,800/cell) and very low levels of VEGFR2 (700/cell), while in human endothelial cells in vitro, we observe that the balance of VEGFRs is inverted, with higher levels VEGFR2 (5,800/cell) and lower levels of VEGFR1 (1,800/cell). Our studies also reveal significant cell-to-cell heterogeneity in receptor expression, and the quantification of these dissimilarities ex vivo for the first time provides insight into the balance of anti-angiogenic or modulatory (VEGFR1) and pro-angiogenic (VEGFR2) signaling.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(9):e44791. · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: Serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels correlate with number and location of micrometastases in a murine model of uveal melanoma.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A preliminary animal study was performed to determine if hepatic micrometastases from uveal melanoma secrete vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) that is measurable in serum. We analysed the serum of a C57Bl/6 mouse model of uveal melanoma (n=10) at days 4, 7, 14 and 21 post-inoculation for VEGF levels. We compared the serum VEGF levels with the number and location of hepatic micrometastases and their respective expression of VEGF mRNA. Serum VEGF levels rose after inoculation of C57Bl/6 mice eyes with B16LS9 cutaneous melanoma cells. Beginning on day 14 there was a statistically significant (p<0.05) increase in VEGF levels, rising to an average peak level of 37.985 pg/ml at day 21. Peak serum VEGF levels correlated with the total number of hepatic micrometastases (R=0.444) and there was moderate correlation of peak VEGF serum levels with micrometastases in more hypoxic locations (R=0.572). VEGF mRNA expression by micrometastases was highest in the most hypoxic regions of the hepatic lobule. Hepatic micrometastastic melanoma arising in a mouse model of ocular melanoma secretes VEGF. The number and location of the micrometastases correlate with serum VEGF levels.The British journal of ophthalmology 01/2011; 95(1):112-7. · 2.92 Impact Factor
Article: Lymphangiogenesis in regional lymph nodes is an independent prognostic marker in rectal cancer patients after neoadjuvant treatment.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: One of the major prognostic factors in rectal cancer is lymph node metastasis. The formation of lymph node metastases is dependent on the existence of a premetastatic niche. An important factor preceding metastasis are lymph vessels which are located in the lymph node. Accordingly, the occurrence of intranodal lymphangiogenesis is thought to indicate distant metastasis and worse prognosis. To evaluate the significance of lymph node lymphangiogenesis, we studied formalin fixed, paraffin embedded adenocarcinomas and regional lymph nodes of 203 rectal cancer patients who were treated with neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy and consecutive curative surgery with cancer free surgical margins (R0). Regional lymph node lymph vessels were detected by immunohistochemistry for podoplanin (D2-40). Our results show that the presence of lymphatic vessels in regional lymph nodes significantly affects the disease-free survival in univariate and multivariate analyses. In contrast, there was no correlation between peritumoral or intratumoral lymph vessel density and prognosis. Indeed, our study demonstrates the importance of lymphangiogenesis in regional lymph nodes after neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy and consecutive surgery as an independent prognostic marker. Staining for intranodal lymphangiogenesis and methods of intravital imaging of lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic flow may be a useful strategy to predict long-term outcome in rectal cancer patients. Furthermore, addition of VEGF-blocking agents to standardized neoadjuvant treatment schemes might be indicated in advanced rectal cancer.PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(11):e27402. · 4.09 Impact Factor