OATP1B1-related drug-drug and drug-gene interactions as potential risk factors for cerivastatin-induced rhabdomyolysis.
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: Genetic variation in drug metabolizing enzymes and membrane transporters as well as concomitant drug therapy can modulate the beneficial and the deleterious effects of drugs. We investigated whether patients exhibiting rhabdomyolysis who were taking cerivastatin possess functional genetic variants in SLCO1B1 and whether they were on concomitant medications that inhibit OATP1B1, resulting in accumulation of cerivastatin. METHODS: This study had three components: (a) resequencing the SLCO1B1 gene in 122 patients who developed rhabdomyolysis while on cerivastatin; (b) functional evaluation of the identified SLCO1B1 nonsynonymous variants and haplotypes in in-vitro HEK293/FRT cells stably transfected with pcDNA5/FRT empty vector, SLCO1B1 reference, variants, and haplotypes; and (c) in-vitro screening of 15 drugs commonly used among the rhabdomyolysis cases for inhibition of OATP1B1-mediated uptake of cerivastatin in HEK293/FRT cells stably transfected with reference SLCO1B1. RESULTS: The resequencing of the SLCO1B1 gene identified 54 variants. In-vitro functional analysis of SLCO1B1 nonsynonymous variants and haplotypes showed that the V174A, R57Q, and P155T variants, a novel frameshift insertion, OATP1B1*14 and OATP1B1*15 haplotype were associated with a significant reduction (P<0.001) in cerivastatin uptake (32, 18, 72, 3.4, 2.1 and 5.7% of reference, respectively). Furthermore, clopidogrel and seven other drugs were shown to inhibit OATP1B1-mediated uptake of cerivastatin. CONCLUSION: Reduced function of OATP1B1 related to genetic variation and drug-drug interactions likely contributed to cerivastatin-induced rhabdomyolysis. Although cerivastatin is no longer in clinical use, these findings may translate to related statins and other substrates of OATP1B1.
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ABSTRACT: Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models are increasingly being used to provide human pharmacokinetic (PK) predictions for organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) substrates based on in vitro assay data. As a natural extension in the application of these models, in this study, we incorporated in vitro information of three major OATP1B1 genetic variants into a previously reported PBPK model to predict the impact of OATP1B1 polymorphisms on human PK. Using pravastatin and rosuvastatin as examples, we showed that the predicted plasma concentration-time profiles in groups carrying different OATP1B1 genetic variants reasonably matched the clinical observations from multiple studies. This modeling and simulation approach may aid decision making in early pharmaceutical research and development as well as patient-specific dose adjustment in clinical practice.CPT: pharmacometrics & systems pharmacology. 12/2014; 3:e151.
- Nature 09/2014; 513(7518):E1-3. · 42.35 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cerivastatin and repaglinide are substrates of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C8, CYP3A4 and organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1. A recent study revealed an increased risk of rhabdomyolysis in patients using cerivastatin with clopidogrel, warranting further studies on clopidogrel interactions. In healthy volunteers, repaglinide area under concentration-time curve (AUC0-∞) was increased 5.1-fold by a 300 mg loading dose of clopidogrel and 3.9-fold by continued administration of 75 mg clopidogrel daily. In vitro, we identified clopidogrel acyl-ß-D-glucuronide as a potent time-dependent inhibitor of CYP2C8. A physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model indicated that inactivation of CYP2C8 by clopidogrel acyl-ß-D-glucuronide leads to uninterrupted 60-85% inhibition of CYP2C8 during daily clopidogrel treatment. Computational modelling resulted in docking of clopidogrel acyl-ß-D-glucuronide in CYP2C8 active site with its thiophene moiety close to heme. The results indicate that clopidogrel is a strong CYP2C8 inhibitor via its acyl-ß-D-glucuronide, and imply that glucuronide metabolites should be considered as potential inhibitors of CYP enzymes.Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics (2014); Accepted article preview online 27 June 2014; doi:10.1038/clpt.2014.141.Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics 06/2014; · 7.39 Impact Factor