Suppression of Inflammatory Reactions by Terpinen-4-ol, a Main Constituent of Tea Tree Oil, in a Murine Model of Oral Candidiasis and Its Suppressive Activity to Cytokine Production of Macrophages in Vitro

Teikyo University Institute of Medical Mycology.
Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin (Impact Factor: 1.83). 05/2013; 36(5):838-44. DOI: 10.1248/bpb.b13-00033
Source: PubMed


The onset of oral candidiasis is accompanied by inflammatory symptoms such as pain in the tongue, edema or tissue damage and lowers the quality of life (QOL) of the patient. In a murine oral candidiasis model, the effects were studied of terpinen-4-ol (T-4-ol), one of the main constituents of tea tree oil, Melaleuca alternifolia, on inflammatory reactions. When immunosuppressed mice were orally infected with Candida albicans, their tongues showed inflammatory symptoms within 24 h after the infection, which was monitored by an increase of myeloperoxidase activity and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 in their tongue homogenates. Oral treatment with 50 µL of 40 mg/mL terpinen-4-ol 3h after the Candida infection clearly suppressed the increase of these inflammatory parameters. In vitro analysis of the effects of terpinen-4-ol on cytokine secretion of macrophages indicated that 800 µg/mL of this substance significantly inhibited the cytokine production of the macrophages cultured in the presence of heat-killed C. albicans cells. Based on these findings, the role of the anti-inflammatory action of T-4-ol in its therapeutic activity against oral candidiasis was discussed.

Download full-text


Available from: Sanae A. Ishijima, Oct 05, 2015
1 Follower
52 Reads
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Over-the-counter acne treatments containing tea tree oil from the plant Melaleuca alternifolia are widely available, and evidence indicates that they are a common choice amongst those self-treating their acne. The aims of this review were to collate and evaluate the clinical evidence on the use of tea tree oil products for treating acne, to review safety and tolerability and to discuss the underlying modes of therapeutic action. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.
    International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 11/2014; 45(2). DOI:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2014.10.011 · 4.30 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The search for alternative therapies for oral candidiasis is a necessity and the use of medicinal plants seems to be one of the promising solutions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo effects of the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia on Candida albicans. METHODS: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) of M. alternifolia were determined by the broth microdilution assay. For the in vivo study, twelve immunosuppressed mice with buccal candidiasis received topical applications of M. alternifolia with MBEC. After treatment, yeasts were recovered from the mice and quantified (CFU/mL). Mice were killed for morphologic analysis of the tongue dorsum by optical and scanning electron microscopy. Data were analyzed using Student's t test or Mann-Whitney test. RESULTS: The MIC of M. alternifolia was 0.195% and the MBEC was 12.5%. Treatment with M. alternifolia achieved a 5.33 log reduction in C. albicans and reduced the microscopic lesions of candidiasis. CONCLUSIONS: M. alternifolia oil at a 12.5% was effective to eradicate a C. albicans biofilm formed in vitro and to reduce yeasts of C. albicans in an immunosuppressed mouse model.
    BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 12/2014; 14(1):489. DOI:10.1186/1472-6882-14-489 · 2.02 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The important State-Regions Agreement ratified on February 7th 2013 entrusts to the Regions the training in complementary medicine such as acupuncture, herbal medicine and homeopathy. Moreover, several scientific studies have shown the potential of natural essential oils, as an integral part of herbal medicine, especially in the prevention and/or treatment of some infectious diseases. For these reasons, the Istituto Superiore di Sanità, with the support of the scientific association SIROE (Società Italiana per la Ricerca sugli Oli Essenziali), San Filippo Neri Hospital and the Policlinico Tor Vergata of Rome, proposed this document to report the current scientific evidence relating to the various biological properties of essential oils, with special emphasis on the antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity of the latter, as a potential alternative to antibiotics against drug resistance. Drawing on the expertise of researchers and teachers from different Italian scientific institutions, this report stands as a valid training tool for a complementary approach in line with current regulations. Key words: Natural products; Essential oils; Herbal medicine; Infectious diseases; Integrative medicine; Public health; Environment