Healthcare Utilization in Medical Intensive Care Unit Survivors with Alcohol Withdrawal.
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Rehospitalization is an important and costly outcome that occurs commonly in several diseases encountered in the medical intensive care unit (ICU). Although alcohol use disorders are present in 40% of ICU survivors and alcohol withdrawal is the most common alcohol-related reason for admission to an ICU, rates and predictors of rehospitalization have not been previously reported in this population. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of medical ICU survivors with a primary or secondary discharge diagnosis of alcohol withdrawal using 2 administrative databases. The primary outcome was time to rehospitalization or death. Secondary outcomes included time to first emergency department or urgent care clinic visit in the subset of ICU survivors who were not rehospitalized. Cox proportional hazard models were adjusted for age, gender, race, homelessness, smoking, and payer source. RESULTS: Of 1,178 patients discharged from the medical ICU over the study period, 468 (40%) were readmitted to the hospital and 54 (4%) died within 1 year. Schizophrenia (hazard ratio 2.23, 95% CI 1.57, 3.34, p < 0.001), anxiety disorder (hazard ratio 2.04, 95% CI 1.30, 3.32, p < 0.01), depression (hazard ratio 1.62, 95% CI 1.05, 2.40, p = 0.03), and Deyo comorbidity score ≥3 (hazard ratio 1.43, 95% CI 1.09, 1.89, p = 0.01) were significant predictors of time to death or first rehospitalization. Bipolar disorder was associated with time to first emergency department or urgent care clinic visit (hazard ratio 2.03, 95% CI 1.24, 3.62, p < 0.01) in the 656 patients who were alive and not rehospitalized within 1 year. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of a psychiatric comorbidity is a significant predictor of multiple measures of unplanned healthcare utilization in medical ICU survivors with a primary or secondary discharge diagnosis of alcohol withdrawal. This finding highlights the potential importance of targeting longitudinal multidisciplinary care to patients with a dual diagnosis.
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ABSTRACT: Alcohol abuse and dependence are collectively referred to as alcohol use disorders (AUD). An AUD is present in up to one third of patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU). We sought to understand the barriers and facilitators to change in ICU survivors with an AUD to provide a foundation upon which to tailor alcohol-related interventions. We used a qualitative approach with a broad constructivist framework, conducting semistructured interviews in medical ICU survivors with an AUD. Patients were included if they were admitted to 1 of 2 medical ICUs and were excluded if they refused participation, were unable to participate, or did not speak English. Digitally recorded and professionally transcribed interviews were analyzed using a general inductive approach and grouped into themes. Nineteen patients were included, with an average age of 51 (interquartile range, 36-51) years and an average Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score of 9 (interquartile range, 5-13); 68% were white, 74% were male, and the most common reason for admission was alcohol withdrawal (n = 8). We identified 5 facilitators of change: empathy of the inpatient health care environment, recognition of accumulating problems, religion, pressure from others to stop drinking, and trigger events. We identified 3 barriers to change: missed opportunities, psychiatric comorbidity, and cognitive dysfunction. Social networks were identified as either a barrier or facilitator to change depending on the specific context. Alcohol-related interventions to motivate and sustain behavior change could be tailored to ICU survivors by accounting for unique barriers and facilitators.Journal of critical care 07/2013; 28(5). DOI:10.1016/j.jcrc.2013.06.011 · 2.19 Impact Factor
Critical Care Medicine 06/2014; 42(6):1563-4. DOI:10.1097/CCM.0000000000000274 · 6.15 Impact Factor