Fungus-Mediated Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles: A Novel Biological Approach to Nanoparticle Synthesis
ABSTRACT The biological effects of nanoparticles and their uses as molecular probes are research areas of growing interest. The present study demonstrates an eco-friendly biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles. The pure colonies of penicillium aurantiogriseum, penicillium citrinum, and penicillium waksmanii were cultured in fluid czapek dox broth. Then, their supernatants were examined for the ability to produce gold nanoparticles. In this step, 1 mM solution of AuCl added to the reaction matrixes separately. The reactions were performed in a dark environment at 28 degrees C. After 24 hours, it was observed that the color of the solutions turned to dark purple from light yellow. Synthesized gold nanoparticles were characterized by using UV-Visible Spectroscopy, Nano Zeta Sizer, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that the gold nanoparticles were formed fairly uniform with spherical shape with the Z-average diameter of 153.3 nm, 172 nm and 160.1 nm for penicillium aurantiogriseum, penicillium citrinum, and penicillium waksmanii, respectively. The Fourier transformed infrared spectra revealed the presence of different functional groups to gold nanoparticles which were present in the fungal extract. The current approach suggests that the rapid synthesis of nanoparticles would be proper for developing a biological process for mass scale production.
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Article: Monograph on the genus Penicillium[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Penicillium is a well known cosmopolitan genus of moulds that comprises more than 350 species playing various roles in natural ecosystems, agriculture and biotechnology. They have double faces, a good and beneficial one and a bad and economically destructive one. Examples of the beneficial roles are: Penicillium chrysogenum produces the antibacterial antibiotic penicillin, Penicillium griseofulvum produces the antifungal antibiotic griseofulvin, several Penicillium species produce anti-cancer substances such as Penicillium albocoremium (Andrastin A), P. decumbens (Bredenin). Penicillium roqueforti is used for the production of Roquefort cheese and Penicillium camemberti is used for the production of Camembert cheese. Several Penicillium species produce enzymes that are used in industry, e.g. cellulases and xylanases produced by Penicillium species have broad applications in food and feed, the textile industry, and the pulp and paper industries. Penicillium species are also used for biodegradation of oil and can be used in restoring the ecosystem when contaminated by oil. Peroxidase enzyme of Penicillium species have potential biodegradable activities that degrade Amaranth dye, Orange G, heterocyclic dyes like, Azure B and Lip dye. Morepver, some species function as decomposers of dead materials and can be used in recycling of waste products. Recently, Penicillium species, such as P. aurantiogriseum, P. citrinum, and P. waksmanii, are used for the eco-friendly biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles from a solution of AuCl. Gold nanoparticles are formed fairly uniform with spherical shape with the Z-average diameter of 153.3 nm, 172 nm and 160.1 nm for the 3 species, respectively. On the other hand, some species are known to cause postharvest diseases, e.g. Penicillium expansum is one of the most prevalent post-harvest rots that infects apples. Although it is a major economic problem in apples, this plant pathogen can be isolated from a wide host range, including pears, strawberries, tomatoes, corn, and rice. This mould also produces the carcinogenic metabolite patulin, a neurotoxin that is harmful in apple juice and apple products. patulin in food products is a health concern because many are consumed by young children. In addition, a second secondary metabolite citrinin is produced as well. Mould growth on citrus fruits during storage is a continuing problem that results in economic loss. Although several fungal species have been reported to be involved in the spoilage of citrus products, Penicillium digitatum (green mold) and Penicillium italicum (blue mold) are the primary organisms involved. Penicillium is one of the first fungi to grow on water-damaged materials and has been implicated in causing allergic reactions, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and a variety of severe lung complications. It may cause sarcoidosis, fibrosis, or allergic alveolitis in susceptible individuals, or patients who have been exposed over long periods of time, depending on the strain. P. oxalicum has also been reported to cause genital infection of water buffalo.
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ABSTRACT: This study aimed to biosynthesize and optimize the process of iron oxide nanoparticles producing by Penicillium waksmanii isolated from soil by employing mathematical methodology. The synthesized nanoparticles were formed with fairly well-defined dimensions with good monodispersity determined by SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy), AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy), DLS (Dynamic Light Scattering), UV-Visible spectroscopy, zeta potential, polydispersity index (PDI) and correlogram of nanoparticles. The effects of different factors such as pH, temperature and concentration of FeCl3 on the particle size were investigated by Box-Behnken experimental design. The R2 value was calculated to be 0.9992 indicating the accuracy and ability of the polynomial model.Journal of Nano Research 03/2015; 30:106-115. DOI:10.4028/www.scientific.net/JNanoR.30.106 · 0.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: Silver nanoparticles have a wide range of applications in medical sciences which their effects depend on their size. Besides, there is an ever-growing need to develop environmentally benign nanoparticles synthesis processes which created an interesting area for the researchers studying in this field. So, attempts have been made to find new microorganisms that fabricate the nanoparticles in smaller size. This study aimed to evaluate a green process for production of silver (Ag) nanoparticles synthesized using Penicillium chrysogenum (PTCC 5037 = ATCC 10003). Methods: The standard colonies of Penicillium chrysogenum were cultured in Czapek dox broth. The supernatant of the broth was examined for the ability to produce silver nanoparticles. For that, 100mL of silver nitrate solution at a concentration of 3mM was added to 100mL of the supernatant and incubated for 24 hours at 28°C. Then, the formation of nanoparticles were confirmed by alteration of culture from yellow to brown. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Zeta potential, Polydispersity Index (PDI), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) for particle size and shape. The synthesized nanoparticles were centrifuged at 20,000rpm by ultracentrifuge for 5 minutes to separate nano-silvers from the solution. Results: Addition of Penicillium citrinum supernatant to aqueous AgNO3solution led to the appearance of brown color in solution after 24h of reaction, indicating the formation of silver nanoparticles. The UV-Vis spectrum exhibit an absorption band at around 420nm suggesting the formation of silver nanoparticles. Hence, the secreted proteins and enzymes are responsible for reduction of silver ions to convert them to silver nanoparticles. SEM and AFM photographs showed that the silver nanoparticles formed were fairly uniform in size with a spherical shape and average diameter of 40nm. Conclusion: The study showed that the standard fungus of Penicillium chrysogenum has the ability of cationic silver ions to produce silver nanoparticles. Moreover, as nanoparticles formed extracellularly, they are pure and free of cellular particles which help them to be used straightly for various applications. Keywords: Biological synthesis, Silver nanoparticles, Penicillium cherysogenum.