[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thousands of bacterial phylotypes colonise the human body and the host response to this bacterial challenge greatly influences our state of health or disease. The concept of infectogenomics highlights the importance of host genetic factors in determining the composition of human microbial biofilms and the response to this microbial challenge. We hereby introduce the term 'genetic dysbiosis' to highlight the role of human genetic variants affecting microbial recognition and host response in creating an environment conducive to changes in the normal microbiota. Such changes can, in turn, predispose to, and influence, diseases such as: cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, bacterial vaginosis and periodontitis. This review presents the state of the evidence on host genetic factors affecting dysbiosis and microbial misrecognition (i.e. an aberrant response to the normal microbiota) and highlights the need for further research in this area.
Journal of Oral Microbiology 02/2014; 6. DOI:10.3402/jom.v6.22962
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Symptoms compatible with IBS, that is, abdominal pain and discomfort, bloating, abdominal distention and an erratic bowel function, are very common reasons for GI consultations in primary care1 and patients with IBS are one of the most frequent patient categories in gastroenterology outpatient clinics.2 Despite being very common and in spite of considerable research effort during the last decades, the pathophysiology of IBS is still considered to be complex and incompletely understood3 ,4 and even though our understanding of this disabling condition arguably has increased tremendously, we still cannot use knowledge from pathophysiology studies to subgroup IBS patients in a clinically meaningful way. In everyday clinical work, we still rely on subgrouping patients based on the predominant bowel habit when we decide how to manage and treat the patients.5 Even though we have new pharmacological treatment options targeting specific molecules in the GI tract,6-9 only a subset of patients will respond favourably when we choose patients based on the current imperfect system to subgroup patients, that is, into patients with predominant diarrhoea, constipation or mixed bowel habit.5 Ideally, clinical subgrouping based on the underlying pathophysiology should have the potential to lead to targeted … [Full text of this article]
Gut 02/2014; 63(11). DOI:10.1136/gutjnl-2013-306434 · 13.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A computational and in silico system level framework was developed to identify and prioritize the antibacterial drug targets in Clostridium botulinum (Clb), the causative agent of flaccid paralysis in humans that can be fatal in 5 to 10% of cases. This disease is difficult to control due to the emergence of drug-resistant pathogenic strains and the only available treatment antitoxin which can target the neurotoxin at the extracellular level and cannot reverse the paralysis. This study framework is based on comprehensive systems-scale analysis of genomic sequence homology and phylogenetic relationships among Clostridium, other infectious bacteria, host and human gut flora. First, the entire 2628-annotated genes of this bacterial genome were categorized into essential, non-essential and virulence genes. The results obtained showed that 39 % of essential proteins that functionally interact with virulence proteins were identified, which could be a key to new interventions that may kill the bacteria and minimize the host damage caused by the virulence factors. Second, a comprehensive comparative COGs and blast sequence analysis of these proteins and host proteins to minimize the risks of side effects was carried out. This revealed that 47 % of a set of C. botulinum proteins were evolutionary related with Homo sapiens proteins to sort out the non-human homologs. Third, orthology analysis with other infectious bacteria to assess broad-spectrum effects was executed and COGs were mostly found in Clostridia, Bacilli (Firmicutes), and in alpha and beta Proteobacteria. Fourth, a comparative phylogenetic analysis was performed with human microbiota to filter out drug targets that may also affect human gut flora. This reduced the list of candidate proteins down to 131. Finally, the role of these putative drug targets in clostridial biological pathways was studied while subcellular localization of these candidate proteins in bacterial cellular system exhibited 68 % of the proteins were located in the cytoplasm, out of which 6% was virulent. Finally, this framework may serve as a general computational strategy for future drug target identification in infectious diseases.
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