In this article, cognitive measures in the screening of individuals at risk for Alzheimer disease (AD) are reviewed. Use of cognitive tasks in identifying clinical cases of AD is considered, as well as methods for detecting those in the prodromal stages of the disease, including cognitive screening instruments. Traditional assessments, such as the mini-mental state examination, as well as contemporary computerized screening instruments, are examined. Areas of cognition for investigation in the detection of prodromal AD are recommended. The prospects for general cognitive screening are reviewed, and more engaging technologies to tests individuals at risk for developing AD are recommended.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract. The recently developed Phototest is a simple, easy and very brief test for detecting cognitive impairment or dementia. Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the Phototest for detecting cognitive impairment or dementia.
Methods: We used a manually created database to search for studies evaluating the Phototest diagnostic yield and performed an initial meta-analysis to determine sensitivity (Sn) and specificity (Sp) of diagnostic parameters. We also performed a second meta-analysis of individual participant data. Results: In total, 6 studies were included in the metaanalysis. For dementia, Sn was 0.85 (95% CI, 0.82-0.88) and Sp 0.87 (95% CI, 0.85-0.99); for cognitive impairment, Sn was 0.80 (95% CI, 0.77-0.92) and Sp 0.88 (95% CI, 0.86-0.90). In the individual data meta-analysis, 1565 subjects were included, where best cut-off points for dementia and for cognitive impairment were 26/27 (Sn=0.89 (95% CI 0.85-0.91), Sp=0.84 (95% CI, 0.82-0.91)) and 28/29 (Sn=0.79 (95% CI, 0.76-0.81), Sp=0.88 (95% CI, 0.86-0.90)), respectively.
Conclusion: Phototest has good diagnostic accuracy for dementia and cognitive impairment. It is brief, simple and can be used in illiterate persons. This makes it suitable for use in primary care settings and/or in subjects with low educational level.
Key words: meta-analysis, screening, detection, cognitive impairment, phototest, dementia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive brain disease that leads to an irreversible loss of neurons and cognition. It is the most common cause of dementia and can be considered as a major public health problem. At the histological level, AD is characterized by senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Numerous studies involving genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic approaches have been published in order to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in AD, and to find new biomarkers. Metabolomics, and in particular lipidomics, have recently offered new possibilities due to the development of robust and sensitive analytical methods, such as LC-MS. This review aims to illustrate how lipidomics can help understand the biological mechanisms inherent to AD and how lipids can be considered as relevant biomarkers of AD at early stages.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thirteen percent of the global burden of disease is attributable to mental, neurological and substance abuse disorders, which is greater than both cardiovascular disease and cancer . The total cost of brain disorders in Europe for 2010 was estimated at €798 billion, consisting of 37% direct healthcare costs, 23% direct non-medical costs and 40% indirect social costs and productivity losses  .
Developing therapies for disorders of the brain is notoriously difficult - CNS drugs take 35% longer to complete clinical trials and receive regulatory approval compared to other new prescription medicines. Because of this a number of Pharmaceutical companies (including AstraZeneca, Pfizer, GSK, Merck and Sanofi) have substantially reduced CNS drug discovery and development.
A Translational CNS Summit took place on October 22-24 of 2013 at the DoubleTree by Hilton Hotel in London’s West End. This international meeting, organised by Hanson Wade, reviewed the current status of CNS drug discovery and development and considered approaches to improve its speed, efficiency and effectiveness.
Drugs of the Future 02/2014; 39: 165-169. DOI:10.1358/dof.2014.039.02.2116668 · 0.17 Impact Factor
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.