Among the alternative beams being recently considered for external cancer radiotherapy, (9)C has received some attention because it is expected that its biological effectiveness could be boosted by the beta-delayed emission of two alpha particles and a proton that takes place at the ion-stopping site. Experiments have been performed to characterise this exotic beam physically and models have been developed to estimate quantitatively its biological effect. Here, the particle and heavy-ion transport code system ( PHITS ) is used to calculate energy-deposition and linear energy transfer distributions for a (9)C beam in water and the results are compared with published data. Although PHITS fails to reproduce some of the features of the distributions, it suggests that the decay of (9)C contributes negligibly to the energy-deposition distributions, thus contradicting the previous interpretation of the measured data. We have also performed a microdosimetric calculation to estimate the biological effect of the decay, which was found to be negligible; previous microdosimetric Monte-Carlo calculations were found to be incorrect. An analytical argument, of geometrical nature, confirms this conclusion and gives a theoretical upper bound on the additional biological effectiveness of the decay. However, no explanation can be offered at present for the observed difference in the biological effectiveness between (9)C and (12)C; the reproducibility of this surprising result will be verified in coming experiments.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the potential importance of radioactive 9C-ion beam in cancer radiotherapy.
Human salivary gland (HSG) cells were exposed to a double-radiation-source 9C beam at different depths around the Bragg peak. Cell survival fraction was determined by standard clonogenic assay. For comparison, the same experiment was conducted for a therapeutic 12C beam. To determine relative biologic effectiveness (RBE) values, HSG cells were also irradiated with 60Co gamma-rays of fractionation scheme as the reference.
The 9C beam was more efficient in cell killing at the depths around its Bragg peak than was the 12C beam, which corresponded to the 9C-ion stopping region and where delayed low-energy particles were emitted. The RBE value at 50% survival level for the 9C beam varied from 1.38 to 4.23. Compared with the 12C beam, the RBE values for the 9C beam were always higher; an increase in RBE by a factor of up to 1.87 has been observed at the depths distal to the Bragg peak.
The potential advantage of radioactive 9C-ion beam in cancer therapy has been revealed at low dose rate in comparison with a therapeutic 12C beam. This observation, however, remains to be investigated at therapeutic dose rates in the future.
International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics 12/2005; 63(4):1237-44. DOI:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2005.08.006 · 4.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A method of calculating cell survival from microdosimetric spectra for high-LET radiations and exponential cell survival is discussed. The basis of the calculation is that a cell nucleus receiving a specific dose D has a probability of survival of exp(-D/Do), where Do, the specific lethal dose, is assumed to be independent of cell size and shape. A relationship between specific lethal dose and mean lethal dose is derived. This approach gives the result that mean lethal dose is sensitive to both cell size and shape (cells with disc-shaped and spherical nuclei are treated) and therefore its uses as an indicator of cell sensitivity at high LET must be viewed with caution.
International Journal of Radiation Biology 03/1991; 59(2):447-57. DOI:10.1080/09553009114550401 · 1.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Owing to the potentially therapeutic enhancement of delayed particles in treating malignant diseases by radioactive 9C-ion beam, LET spectra at different penetration depths for a 9C beam with 5% momentum spread, produced in the secondary beam line (SBL) at HIMAC, were measured with a multi-wire parallel-plate proportional counter. To compare these LET spectra with those of a therapeutic 12C beam under similar conditions, the 12C beam was replaced with an 11C beam, yielded in the SBL as well and having almost the same range as that of the 9C beam. The LET spectra of the 9C beam and its counterpart, i.e. the 11C beam, at various depths were compared, especially around the Bragg peak regions. The results show that nearby the Bragg peak lower LET components decreased in the LET spectra of the 9C beam while extra components between the LET peak caused by the primary beam and the lower components due to the fragments could be observed. These additional contributions in the LET spectra could be attributed to parts of the emitted particles from the radioactive 9C ions with suitable conditions regarding the LET counter. Integrating these LET spectra in different manners, depth-dose and dose-averaged LET distributions were obtained for the 9C and 11C beams, forming the basic data sets for further studies. In general, the depth-dose distributions of the 9C and 11C beams are comparative, i.e. almost the same peak-to-plateau ratio. The ratio for the 9C beam, however, has room to increase due to the geometric structure limitation of the present detector. The dose-averaged LETs along the beam penetration are always lower for the 9C beam than for the 11C beam except at the falloff region beyond the Bragg peak. Applying the present depth-dose and dose-averaged LET data sets as well as the essential radiobiological parameters obtained with 12C beams previously for HSG cells, an estimate concerning the HSG cell surviving effects along the penetration of the 9C and 11C beams shows that lower survival fractions for the 9C beam at the distal part of the Bragg peak, corresponding to the stopping region of the incoming 9C ions, can be expected when the same entrance dose is given. It is still hard to appreciate the potential of 9C beams in cancer therapy based on the present LET spectrum measurement, but it provides a substantial basis for upcoming radiobiological experiments.
Physics in Medicine and Biology 12/2004; 49(22):5119-33. DOI:10.1088/0031-9155/49/22/007 · 2.76 Impact Factor
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