Ossified choroid plexus papilloma of the fourth ventricle: Elucidation of the mechanism of osteogenesis in benign brain tumors Case report
ABSTRACT True ossification within benign brain tumors is rare, and the molecular mechanism for this process is poorly understood. The authors report a case of ossified choroid plexus papilloma (CPP) and analyze it to help elucidate the underlying molecular basis of osteogenesis in benign brain tumors. A 21-year-old man presented with headache and depression that progressed over years. Computed tomography, MRI, and angiography demonstrated a large heavily calcified fourth ventricular tumor with a vascular blush and no hydrocephalus. The tumor was resected and was found to be an ossified CPP. Immunohistochemical staining for VEGF, Sox2, BMP-2, osterix, osteopontin, and osteocalcin was performed in an attempt to elucidate the mechanism of bone formation. The tumor was extensively ossified with mature bone trabeculae. Immunostaining for VEGF was positive. Additional staining showed the presence of osteocalcin in this ossified tumor but not in samples of nonossified CPPs collected from other patients. Staining for osterix and osteopontin was equivocally positive in the ossified CPP but also in the nonossified CPPs examined. The presence of osteocalcin in the ossified CPP demonstrates that there is true bone formation rather than simple calcification. Its appearance within cells around the trabeculae suggests the presence of osteoblasts. The presence of osterix suggests that a pluripotent cell, or one that is already partially differentiated, may be differentiated into an osteoblast through this pathway. This represents the first systematic immunohistochemical analysis of osteogenesis within choroid plexus tumors.
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ABSTRACT: Patients with juvenile-onset spondyloarthritis (SpA) may develop ankylosis of the midfoot resembling the spinal changes seen in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The study of the histopathology of the feet of patients with tarsitis could help us understand the pathogenesis of bone formation in affected structures in the SpA. The objective of our study was to describe the histopathologic characteristics of the midfoot in patients with tarsitis associated with SpA. We obtained synovial sheaths, entheses, and bone samples from 20 patients with SpA with midfoot pain/tenderness and swelling. Tissue samples underwent H&E staining; immunohistochemistry for CD3, CD4, CD8, CD68, and CD20 cell identification; and immunofluorescence for bone lineage proteins, including osteocalcin, osteopontin, parathyroid hormone-related protein, bone sialoprotein, and alkaline phosphatase. Slight edema and hyalinization were found in some tendon sheaths, and few inflammatory cells were detected in the entheses. In bones, we found some changes suggesting osteoproliferation, including endochondral and intramembranous ossification, but no inflammatory cells. In entheses showing bone proliferation, we detected osteocalcin and osteopontin in cells with a fibroblastmesenchymal phenotype, suggesting the induction of entheseal cells toward an osteoblast phenotype. Osteoproliferation and abnormal expression of bone lineage proteins, but no inflammatory infiltration, characterize midfoot involvement in patients with SpA. In this sense, tarsitis (or ankylosing tarsitis) resembles the involvement of the spine in patients with AS. Ossification may be in part explained by the differentiation of mesenchymal entheseal cells toward the osteoblastic lineage.The Journal of Rheumatology 12/2014; 42(4). DOI:10.3899/jrheum.140218 · 3.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: For this comprehensive review, 257 publications with the key words "osteopontin" or "OPN" and "vascular endothelial growth factor" or "VEGF" in PubMed were screened (time frame from year 1996 to year 2014). 37 articles were excluded because they were not focused on the interactions between these molecules, and papers relevant for transformation-related phenomena were selected. Osteopontin (OPN) and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) are characterized by a convergence in function for regulating cell motility and angiogenesis, the response to hypoxia, and apoptosis. Often, they are co-expressed or one molecule induces the other, however, in some settings OPN-associated pathways and VEGF-associated pathways are distinct. Their relationships affect the pathogenesis in cancer, where they contribute to progression and angiogenesis and serve as markers for poor prognosis. The inhibition of OPN may reduce VEGF levels and suppress tumor progression. In vascular pathologies, these two cytokines mediate remodeling, but may also perpetuate inflammation and narrowing of the arteries. OPN and VEGF are elevated and contribute to vascularization in inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Reviews on Cancer 02/2015; 1855(2). DOI:10.1016/j.bbcan.2015.02.003 · 7.58 Impact Factor