Association between insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity and type 2 diabetes susceptibility variants identified in genome-wide association studies.
ABSTRACT Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) risk have been identified by genome wide association studies (GWAS). The objective of the present study was to investigate the impact of these SNPs on T2DM intermediate phenotypes in order to clarify the physiological mechanisms through which they exert their effects on disease etiology. We analysed 23 SNPs in 9 T2DM genes (CDKAL1, CDKN2B, HHEX/IDE, IGF2BP2, KCNJ11, SLC30A8, TCF2, TCF7L2 and WFS1) in a maximum of 712 men and women from the Quebec Family Study. The participants underwent a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and were measured for glucose, insulin and C-peptide levels. Indices of insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion were derived from fasting and OGTT measurements. We confirmed the significant associations of variants in CDKAL1, CDKN2B, HHEX/IDE, KCNJ11 and TCF7L2 with insulin secretion and also found associations of some of these variants with insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance. IGF2BP2 and SLC30A8 SNPs were not associated with insulin secretion but were with insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance (0.002 <or= P <or= 0.02). To examine the joint effects of these variants and their contribution to T2DM endophenotypes variance, stepwise regression models were used and the model R (2) was computed. The variance in the phenotypes explained by combinations of variants ranged from 2.0 to 8.5%. Diabetes-associated variants in CDKAL1, CDKN2B, HHEX/IDE, IGF2BP2, KCNJ11, SLC30A8 and TCF7L2 are associated with physiological alterations leading to T2DM, such as glucose intolerance, impaired insulin secretion or insulin resistance, supporting their role in the disease aetiology. These variants were found to account for 2.0-8.5% of the variance of T2DM-related traits.
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ABSTRACT: The role of the gut microbiota in the induction of metabolic diseases has now been increasingly recognized worldwide. Indeed, a specific gut microbiota has been shown to characterize lean versus obese phenotypes both in humans and mice. We have also recently demonstrated that a precise gut microbiota is associated with the host's responsiveness to a high-fat diet. Therefore, we hypothesized that insulin resistance in humans could also be linked to a specific gut microbiota. To this aim, microbial DNA and RNA were extracted from the appendix contents of insulin-resistant versus insulin-sensitive obese subjects, matched for body mass index and age, and analyzed by DNA- and RNA-DGGE. Microbial DNA analysis showed that the patients fully segregated according to their degree of insulin action. Conversely, microbial RNA investigation showed that some degree of homology still existed between insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant patients. Quantitative trait analysis, ordinary least squares regression, principal components regression, partial least squares, canonical correlation analysis, and canonical correspondence analysis also showed a net separation of the two phenotypes analyzed. We conclude that a specific gut microbial profile is associated with insulin action in humans.Acta Diabetologica 06/2012; · 4.63 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is a complex disease resulting from the contribution of both environmental and genetic factors. Recently, the list of genes implicated in the susceptibility to T2DM has substantially grown, also as a consequence of the great development of the genome-wide association studies in the last decade. Common polymorphisms in TCF7L2 gene have shown to have a strong effect with respect to many other involved genes. The aims of our study were to confirm the role of TCF7L2 in the susceptibility to T2DM in the Italian population and to investigate whether TCF7L2 genotypes also contribute to the clinical phenotypes variability and to diabetic complications development. Three TCF7L2 polymorphisms (rs7903146, rs7901695 and rs12255372) have been analyzed by allelic discrimination assays in a cohort of 154 Italian patients with T2DM and 171 healthy controls. A case-control association study and a genotype-phenotype correlation study have been carried out. Consistent with previous studies, all three SNPs showed a strong association with susceptibility to T2DM, both at genotypic (P = 0.003, P = 0.004 and P = 0.012) and at allelic level (P = 0.0004, P = 0.0004 and P = 0.003). Moreover, we observed associations between TCF7L2 variants and the following diabetic complications: diabetic retinopathy, cardiovascular disease and coronary artery disease. We also found a strong correlation between the rs7903146 and the presence of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (P = 0.02 with a high OR = 8.28). In conclusion, our study, in addition to confirming the involvement of TCF7L2 gene in the T2DM susceptibility, has shown that TCF7L2 genetic variability also contributes to the development of diabetic complications such as retinopathy and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy.Acta Diabetologica 07/2012; · 4.63 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Common polymorphisms in the transcription factor 7-like 2 gene (TCF7L2) have been associated with type 2 diabetes in different populations and recently with LADA, but not with type 1 diabetes. The aim of our study was to investigate association between the rs7903146 polymorphism in the TCF7L2 gene and LADA in Polish patients. Link between the "high risk for type 2 diabetes genotype" with clinical features was analyzed. 68 newly diagnosed patients with LADA and 195 healthy controls were genotyped for the rs7903146 polymorphism in the TCF7L2 gene using the PCR-based RFLP method. Fasting C peptide level was measured by ELISA. We observed increased frequencies of the TT genotype of the rs7903146 polymorphism in the TCF7L2 gene in LADA patients compared to controls (15 vs. 6%, P = 0.03). Fasting C peptide serum concentration was significantly lower in group of patients with LADA carrying the TT genotype (P < 0.01). In conclusion, the data from this study confirmed previous results showing genetic similarities between patients with LADA and type 2 diabetes. Non-autoimmune mechanism may be related to beta cell dysfunction in patients with LADA.Acta Diabetologica 06/2009; 47(1):83-6. · 4.63 Impact Factor