Prevalence of netB among some clinical isolates of Clostridium perfringens from animals in the United States
ABSTRACT A previously unknown pore forming toxin, called NetB toxin, which is produced by some Australian strains of Clostridium perfringens has recently been reported. This toxin was reported to be critical to the development of the disease necrotic enteritis, in chickens. To investigate the occurrence of the toxin gene (netB) in non-Australian C. perfringens strains, one hundred and six American isolates of C. perfringens were examined. Ninety-two isolates were from chickens, and 14 were from cattle. The netB gene was found in 14 isolates from chickens (7 from chickens with necrotic enteritis, and 7 from unrelated chickens with no evidence of necrotic enteritis). The netB gene was also detected in an isolate recovered from a 3-year-old cow with liver abscesses. The products of all positive netB PCR reactions were sequenced, and these showed 100% nucleotide identity to the netB sequence published in GenBank. Five isolates which had been recovered from five chickens with necrotic enteritis (from four flocks) were netB negative. An additional 24 isolates recovered from one of these lesioned chickens were also netB negative. The present study represents the first study of C. perfringens isolates outside Australia for netB, and the first identification of netB in an isolate from a species other than chickens. The results indicate that the role of NetB in the induction of necrotic enteritis needs to be further investigated, by determining the disease producing capability of both netB positive strains recovered from normal chickens, and netB negative strains recovered from chickens with necrotic enteritis.
- SourceAvailable from: Ken Macklin[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Some studies have shown that the NetB toxin may be an important virulence factor of Clostridium perfringens associated necrotic enteritis in poultry. Additionally, research has shown that strains of C. perfringens positive for both the netB gene and a second toxin-encoding gene, tpeL, appear to be more virulent than strains with only netB. In the past, detection of these genes has been performed relatively inefficiently using two single locus PCRs. This report describes a novel multiplex PCR developed to detect netB and tpeL simultaneously in C. perfringens strains isolated from cases of necrotic enteritis in broilers, providing a more efficient diagnostic tool in the screening of strains for these genes.12/2013; 2013:865702. DOI:10.1155/2013/865702
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: NetB (necrotic enteritis toxin B) is a recently identified β-pore-forming toxin produced by Clostridium perfringens. This toxin has been shown to play a major role in avian necrotic enteritis. In recent years, a dramatic increase in necrotic enteritis has been observed, especially in countries where the use of antimicrobial growth promoters in animal feedstuffs has been banned. The aim of this work was to determine whether immunisation with a NetB toxoid would provide protection against necrotic enteritis. The immunisation of poultry with a formaldehyde NetB toxoid or with a NetB genetic toxoid (W262A) resulted in the induction of antibody responses against NetB and provided partial protection against disease.Vaccine 05/2013; 31(37). DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.05.063 · 3.49 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Gangrenous dermatitis (GD) is an emerging disease of increasing economic importance in poultry resulting from infection by Clostridium septicum and Clostridium perfringens type A. Lack of a reproducible disease model has been a major obstacle in understanding the immunopathology of GD. To gain better understanding of host-pathogen interactions in GD infection, we evaluated various immune parameters in two groups of birds from a recent commercial outbreak of GD, the first showing typical disease signs and pathological lesions (GD-like birds) and the second lacking clinical signs (GD-free birds). Our results revealed that GD-like birds showed: reduced T-cell and B-cell mitogen-stimulated lymphoproliferation; higher levels of serum nitric oxide and alpha-1-acid glycoprotein; greater numbers of K55(+), K1(+), CD8(+), and MHC class II(+) intradermal lymphocytes, and increased K55(+), K1(+), CD8(+), TCR1(+), TCR2(+), Bu1(+), and MHC class II(+) intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes; and increased levels of mRNAs encoding proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in skin compared with GD-free chickens. These results provide the first evidence of altered systemic and local (skin and intestine) immune responses in GD pathogenesis in chickens.Avian Pathology 08/2010; 39(4):255-64. DOI:10.1080/03079457.2010.495382 · 2.04 Impact Factor