CVD formation of graphene on SiC surface in argon atmosphere.

Institute of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, ul. Hoża 69, 00-681 Warszawa, Poland. .
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics (Impact Factor: 4.2). 05/2013; DOI: 10.1039/c3cp44378g
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We investigate the microscopic processes leading to graphene growth by the chemical vapor deposition of propane in an argon atmosphere at the SiC surface. Experimentally, it is known that the presence of argon fastens the dehydrogenation processes at the surface, at high temperatures of about 2000 K. We perform ab initio calculations, at zero temperature, to check whether chemical reactions can explain this phenomenon. Density functional theory and supporting quantum chemistry methods qualitatively describe formation of the graphene wafers. We find that the 4H-SiC(0001) surface exhibits a large catalytic effect in the adsorption process of hydrocarbon molecules, this is also supported by preliminary molecular dynamics results. The existence of the ArH(+) molecule, and an observation from the Raman spectra that the negative charge transfers into the SiC surface, would suggest that presence of argon atoms leads to a deprotonization on the surface, which is necessary to obtain a pure carbon adlayer. But the zero-temperature description shows that the cold environment is insufficient to promote argon-assisted surface cleaning.

1 Bookmark
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In the present paper, we study the effects of functionalization of graphene with simple organic molecules OH, and NH2, focusing on the stability and band gaps of the structures. We have performed DFT calculations for graphene supercells with various numbers of the attached molecules. We have determined adsorption energies of the functionalized graphene mono- and bilayers, the changes in the geometry, and the band structure. We observe the characteristic effects such as rehybridization of the bonds induced by fragments attached to graphene and opening of the graphene band gap by functionalization. We have also studied the dependence of the adsorption energies of the functionalized graphene on the density of the adsorbed molecules. Our calculations reveal that the –OH and –NH2 groups exhibit the strong cohesion to graphene layers. Further, we determine the critical density of the OH fragments which lead to the opening of the band gap. We also show how to engineer the magnitude of the band gap by functionalizing graphene with NH2 groups of various concentrations.
    Acta Physica Polonica Series a 11/2011; 120:842-844. · 0.60 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The noble gases have a particularly stable electronic configuration, comprising fully filled s and p valence orbitals. This makes these elements relatively non-reactive, and they exist at room temperature as monatomic gases. Pauling predicted in 1933 that the heavier noble gases, whose valence electrons are screened by core electrons and thus less strongly bound, could form stable molecules. This prediction was verified in 1962 by the preparation of xenon hexafluoroplatinate, XePtF6, the first compound to contain a noble-gas atom. Since then, a range of different compounds containing radon, xenon and krypton have been theoretically anticipated and prepared. Although the lighter noble gases neon, helium and argon are also expected to be reactive under suitable conditions, they remain the last three long-lived elements of the periodic table for which no stable compound is known. Here we report that the photolysis of hydrogen fluoride in a solid argon matrix leads to the formation of argon fluorohydride (HArF), which we have identified by probing the shift in the position of vibrational bands on isotopic substitution using infrared spectroscopy. Extensive ab initio calculations indicate that HArF is intrinsically stable, owing to significant ionic and covalent contributions to its bonding, thus confirming computational predictions that argon should form a stable hydride species with properties similar to those of the analogous xenon and krypton compounds reported before.
    Nature 09/2000; 406(6798):874-6. · 42.35 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Microwave spectra in the 7-26 MHz region have been measured for the van der Waals complexes, Ar-CH3CH2CH3, Ar-(13)CH3CH2CH3, 20Ne-CH3CH2CH3, and 22Ne-CH3CH2CH3. Both a- and c-type transitions are observed for the Ar-propane complex. The c-type transitions are much stronger indicating that the small dipole moment of the propane (0.0848 D) is aligned perpendicular to the van der Waals bond axis. While the 42 transition lines observed for the primary argon complex are well fitted to a semirigid rotor Hamiltonian, the neon complexes exhibit splittings in the rotational transitions which we attribute to an internal rotation of the propane around its a inertial axis. Only c-type transitions are observed for both neon complexes, and these are found to occur between the tunneling states, indicating that internal motion involves an inversion of the dipole moment of the propane. The difference in energy between the two tunneling states within the ground vibrational state is 48.52 MHz for 20Ne-CH3CH2CH3 and 42.09 MHz for 22Ne-CH3CH2CH3. The Kraitchman substitution coordinates of the complexes show that the rare gas is oriented above the plane of the propane carbons, but shifted away from the methylene carbon, more so in Ne propane than in Ar propane. The distance between the rare gas atom and the center of mass of the propane, Rcm, is 3.823 A for Ar-propane and 3.696 A for Ne-propane. Ab initio calculations are done to map out segments of the intermolecular potential. The global minimum has the rare gas almost directly above the center of mass of the propane, and there are three local minima with the rare gas in the plane of the carbon atoms. Barriers between the minima are also calculated and support the experimental results which suggest that the tunneling path involves a rotation of the propane subunit. The path with the lowest effective barrier is through a C2v symmetric configuration in which the methyl groups are oriented toward the rare gas. Calculating the potential curve for this one-dimensional model and then calculating the energy levels for this potential roughly reproduces the spectral splittings in Ne-propane and explains the lack of splittings in Ar-propane.
    The Journal of Chemical Physics 12/2007; 127(18):184306. · 3.12 Impact Factor


Available from
Jun 10, 2014