Pediatric delirium: monitoring and management in the pediatric intensive care unit.

Department of Anesthesiology, Division of Pediatric Anesthesiology, Vanderbilt University, 2200 Childrens Way, 3116 VCH, Nashville, TN 37232, USA. Electronic address: .
Pediatric Clinics of North America (Impact Factor: 2.2). 06/2013; 60(3):741-60. DOI: 10.1016/j.pcl.2013.02.010
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT This review article updates the pediatric medical community on the current literature regarding diagnosis and treatment of delirium in critically ill children. This information will be of value to pediatricians, intensivists, and anesthesiologists in developing delirium monitoring and management protocols in their pediatric critical care units.

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    ABSTRACT: Delirium is common in adult intensive care, with validated tools for measurement, known risk factors and adverse neurocognitive outcomes. We aimed to determine what is known about pediatric delirium in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). We conducted a systematic search for and review of studies of the accuracy of delirium diagnosis in children in the PICU. Secondary aims were to determine the prevalence, risk factors and outcomes associated with pediatric delirium. We created screening and data collection tools based on published recommendations. After screening 145 titles and abstracts, followed by 35 full-text publications and reference lists of included publications, 9 reports of 5 studies were included. Each of the five included studies was on a single index test: (1) the Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium Scale (PAED; for ages 1 to 17 years), (2) the Pediatric Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (p-CAM-ICU; for ages ≥5 years), (3) the Cornell Assessment of Pediatric Delirium (CAP-D; a modification of the PAED designed to detect hypoactive delirium), (4) the revised Cornell Assessment of Pediatric Delirium (CAP-D(R)) and (5) clinical suspicion. We found that all five studies had a high risk of bias on at least one domain in the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 (QUADAS-2). Sample size, sensitivity, specificity, and effectiveness (correct classification divided by total tests done) were: PAED 144, 91%, 98%, <91% (>16% of scores required imputation for missing data); p-CAM 68, 78%, 98%, 96%; CAP-D 50, 91%, 100%, 89%; CAP-D (R) 111, and of assessments 94%, 79%, <82% (it is not clear if any assessments were not included); and clinical suspicion 877, N/A (only positive predictive value calculable, 66%). Prevalence of delirium was 17%, 13%, 28%, 21%, and 5% respectively. Only the clinical suspicion study researchers statistically determined any risk factors for delirium (pediatric risk of mortality, pediatric index of mortality, ventilation, age) or outcomes of delirium (length of stay and mortality). High-quality research to determine the accuracy of delirium screening tools in the PICU are required before prevalence, risk factors and outcomes can be determined and before a routine screening tool can be recommended. Direct comparisons of the p-CAM-ICU and CAP-D(R) should be performed.
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The recently validated Cornell Assessment for Pediatric Delirium (CAPD) is a new rapid bedside nursing screen for delirium in hospitalized children of all ages. The present manuscript provides a "developmental anchor points" reference chart, which helps ground clinicians' assessment of CAPD symptom domains in a developmental understanding of the presentation of delirium. Method: During the development of this CAPD screening tool, it became clear that clinicians need specific guidance and training to help them draw on their expertise in child development and pediatrics to improve the interpretative reliability of the tool and its accuracy in diagnosing delirium. The developmental anchor points chart was formulated and reviewed by a multidisciplinary panel of experts to evaluate content validity and include consideration of sick behaviors within a hospital setting. Results: The CAPD developmental anchor points for the key ages of newborn, 4 weeks, 6 weeks, 8 weeks, 28 weeks, 1 year, and 2 years served as the basis for training bedside nurses in scoring the CAPD for the validation trial and as a multifaceted bedside reference chart to be implemented within a clinical setting. In the current paper, we discuss the lessons learned during implementation, with particular emphasis on the importance of collaboration with the bedside nurse, the challenges of establishing a developmental baseline, and further questions about delirium diagnosis in children. Significance of Results: The CAPD with developmental anchor points provides a validated, structured, and developmentally informed approach to screening and assessment of delirium in children. With minimal training on the use of the tool, bedside nurses and other pediatric practitioners can reliably identify children at risk for delirium.
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