Dysfunction of the median nerve at the elbow or proximal forearm can characterize two distinct clinical entities: pronator syndrome (PS) or anterior interosseous nerve (AIN) syndrome. PS is characterized by vague volar forearm pain, with median nerve paresthesias and minimal motor findings. AIN syndrome is a pure motor palsy of any or all of the muscles innervated by that nerve: the flexor pollicis longus, the flexor digitorum profundus of the index and middle fingers, and the pronator quadratus. The sites of anatomic compression are essentially the same for both disorders. Typically, the findings of electrodiagnostic studies are normal in patients with PS and abnormal in those with AIN syndrome. PS is a controversial diagnosis and is typically treated nonsurgically. AIN syndrome is increasingly thought to be neuritis and it often resolves spontaneously following prolonged observation. Surgical indications for nerve decompression include persistent symptoms for >6 months in patients with PS or for a minimum of 12 months with no signs of motor improvement in those with AIN syndrome.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to detect subclinical pronator syndrome (PS) in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) with the utility of the anterior interosseous/median (AIM) score.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The supracondylar process is a congenital bone projection on the distal anteromedial humerus often associated with a ligament of Struthers, a fibrous connection between the process and medial epicondyle. It is largely asymptomatic and only on rare occasions presents with neurovascular compression resulting in a supracondylar process syndrome. This case report describes a 28-year-old woman with supracondylar process syndrome, and our management. The topic is further explored with a literature review of 43 reported cases. Analysis of the case reports indicates that isolated median nerve injuries are the most common. Other presentations such as fractures, vascular compromise, and ulnar nerve involvement are less frequent.
The Journal Of Hand Surgery 06/2014; 39(6):1130-5. DOI:10.1016/j.jhsa.2014.03.035 · 1.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Carpal tunnel syndrome is by far the most common peripheral nerve compression syndrome, affecting approximately one in every six adults to a greater or lesser extent. Splitting the flexor retinaculum to treat carpal tunnel syndrome is the second most common specialized surgical procedure in Germany. Cubital tunnel syndrome is rarer by a factor of 13, and the other compression syndromes are rarer still.
This review is based on publications retrieved by a selective literature search of PubMed and the Cochrane Library, along with current guidelines and the authors' clinical and scientific experience.
Randomized controlled trials have shown, with a high level of evidence, that the surgical treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome yields very good results regardless of the particular technique used, as long as the diagnosis and the indication for surgery are well established by the electrophysiologic and radiological findings and the operation is properly performed. The success rates of open surgery, and the single-portal and dual-portal endoscopic methods are 91.6%, 93.4% and 92.5%, respectively. When performed by experienced hands, all these procedures have complication rates below 1%. The surgical treatment of cubital tunnel syndrome has a comparably low complication rate, but worse results overall. Neuro-ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (neuro-MRI) are increasingly being used to complement the diagnostic findings of electrophysiologic studies.
Evidence-based diagnostic methods and treatment recommendations are now available for the two most common peripheral nerve compression syndromes. Further controlled trials are needed for most of the rarer syndromes, especially the controversial ones.
Deutsches Ärzteblatt International 01/2015; 112(1-02):14-26. DOI:10.3238/arztebl.2015.0014 · 3.52 Impact Factor
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