Weight change at 1 mo of antiretroviral therapy and its association with subsequent mortality, morbidity, and CD4 T cell reconstitution in a Tanzanian HIV-infected adult cohort
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The development of low-cost point-of-care technologies to improve HIV treatment is a major focus of current research in resource-limited settings. OBJECTIVE: We assessed associations of body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) at antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation and weight change after 1 mo of treatment with mortality, morbidity, and CD4 T cell reconstitution. DESIGN: A prospective cohort of 3389 Tanzanian adults initiating ART enrolled in a multivitamin trial was followed at monthly clinic visits (median: 19.7 mo). Proportional hazard models were used to analyze mortality and morbidity associations, whereas generalized estimating equations were used for CD4 T cell counts. RESULTS: The median weight change at 1 mo of ART was +2.0% (IQR: -0.4% to +4.6%). The association of weight loss at 1 mo with subsequent mortality varied significantly by baseline BMI (P = 0.011). Participants with ≥2.5% weight loss had 6.43 times (95% CI: 3.78, 10.93 times) the hazard of mortality compared with that of participants with weight gains ≥2.5%, if their baseline BMI was <18.5 but only 2.73 times (95% CI: 1.49, 5.00 times) the hazard of mortality if their baseline BMI was ≥18.5 and <25.0. Weight loss at 1 mo was also associated with incident pneumonia (P = 0.002), oral thrush (P = 0.007), and pulmonary tuberculosis (P < 0.001) but not change in CD4 T cell counts (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Weight loss as early as 1 mo after ART initiation can identify adults at high risk of adverse outcomes. Studies identifying reasons for and managing early weight loss are needed to improve HIV treatment, with particular urgency for malnourished adults initiating ART. The parent trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00383669.
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ABSTRACT: Objectives To determine the effects of lipid based nutritional supplements with either whey or soy protein in patients with HIV during the first three months of antiretroviral treatment (ART) and to explore effects of timing by comparing supplementation at the start of ART and after three months delay. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting Three public ART facilities in Jimma, Oromia region, Ethiopia. Participants Adults with HIV eligible for ART with body mass index (BMI) >16. Intervention Daily supplementation with 200 g (4600 kJ) of supplement containing whey or soy during either the first three or the subsequent three months of ART. Outcome measures Primary: lean body mass assessed with deuterium dilution, grip strength measured with dynamometers, and physical activity measured with accelerometer and heart rate monitors. Secondary: viral load and CD4 counts. Auxiliary: weight and CD3 and CD8 counts. Results Of 318 patients enrolled, 210 (66%) were women, mean age was 33 (SD 9), and mean BMI was 19.5 (SD 2.4). At three months, participants receiving the supplements containing whey or soy had increased their lean body mass by 0.85 kg (95% confidence interval 0.16 kg to 1.53 kg) and 0.97 kg (0.29 kg to 1.64 kg), respectively, more than controls. This was accompanied by an increased gain of grip strength of 0.68 kg (−0.11 kg to 1.46 kg) for the whey supplement group and 0.93 kg (0.16 kg to 1.70 kg) for the soy supplement group. There were no effects on physical activity. Total weight gain increased by 2.05 kg (1.12 kg to 2.99 kg) and 2.06 kg (1.14 kg to 2.97 kg) for the whey and soy groups, respectively. In addition, in the whey supplement group overall CD3 counts improved by 150 cells/µL (24 to 275 cells/µL), of which 112 cells/µL (15 to 209 cells/µL) were CD8 and 25 cells/µL (−2 to 53 cells/µL) were CD4. Effects of the soy containing supplement on immune recovery were not significant. The effects of the two supplements, however, were not significantly different in direct comparison. Exploratory analysis showed that relatively more lean body mass was gained by patients with undetectable viral load at three months. Patients receiving delayed supplementation had higher weight gain but lower gains in functional outcomes. Conclusions Lipid based nutritional supplements improved gain of weight, lean body mass, and grip strength in patients with HIV starting ART. Supplements containing whey were associated with improved immune recovery. Trial registration Controlled-trials.com ISRCTN32453477.BMJ (online) 05/2014; 348(may15 2):g3187-g3187. DOI:10.1136/bmj.g3187 · 16.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: The evidence base for effects of nutritional interventions for malnourished HIV-infected patients starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) is limited and inconclusive. Objective: We hypothesized that both vitamin and mineral deficiencies and poor appetite limit weight gain in malnourished patients starting ART and that vitamin and mineral supplementation would improve appetite and permit nutritional recovery. Design: The randomized controlled Nutritional Support for Africans Starting Antiretroviral Therapy trial was conducted in Mwanza, Tanzania, and Lusaka, Zambia. ART-naive adults referred for ART and with body mass index <18.5 kg/m2 received lipid-based nutritional supplements either without (LNS) or with added vitamins and minerals (LNS-VM), beginning before ART initiation. Participants were given 30 g/d LNS from recruitment until 2 weeks after starting ART and 250 g/d from weeks 2 to 6 of ART. Results: Of 1815 patients recruited, 365 (20%) died during the study and 813 (45%) provided data at 12 weeks. Controlling for baseline values, anthropometric measures were consistently higher at 12-week ART in the LNS-VM than in the LNS group but statistically significant only for calf and mid-upper arm circumferences and triceps skinfold. Appetite did not differ between groups. Using piecewise mixed-effects quadratic models including all patients and time points, the main effects of LNS-VM were seen after starting ART and were significant for weight, body mass index, and mid-upper arm circumference. Conclusions: Provision of high levels of vitamins and minerals to patients referred for ART, delivered with substantial macronutrients, increased nutritional recovery but did not seem to act through treatment group differences in appetite.JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 12/2014; 68(4). DOI:10.1097/QAI.0000000000000483 · 4.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected males have poor treatment outcomes after initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) compared to HIV-infected women. Dietary factors might mediate the association between sex and disease progression. However, the gender difference in diet among HIV-infected individuals in sub-Saharan Africa is largely unknown. The objective of this study was to examine differences in dietary intake among HIV-infected men and women. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of dietary questionnaire data from 2038 adults initiating ART in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania to assess whether nutrient adequacy differed by sex. We dichotomized participants' nutrient intakes by whether recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) were met and estimated the relative risk (RR) of meeting RDAs in males using binomial regression models. We also estimated the mean difference in intake of foods and food groups by gender. We found poorer dietary practices among men compared to women. Males were less likely to meet the RDAs for micronutrients critical for slowing disease progression among HIV patients: niacin (RR = 0.39, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.27 to 0.55), riboflavin (RR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.73 to 0.91), vitamin C (RR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.89 to 1.00), and zinc (RR = 0.06, 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.24). Intake of thiamine, pantothenate, vitamins B6, B12, and E did not vary by gender. Males were less likely to eat cereals (mean difference [servings per day] = -0.21, 95% CI: -0.44 to 0.001) and vegetables (mean difference = -0.47, 95% CI: -0.86 to -0.07) in their diet, but more likely to have meat (mean difference = 0.14, 95% CI: 0.06 to 0.21). We conclude that male HIV patients have poorer dietary practices than females, and this may contribute to faster progression of the disease in males.AIDS Care 01/2015; DOI:10.1080/09540121.2014.996517 · 1.60 Impact Factor