Surgical site infection following spinal instrumentation for scoliosis: a multicenter analysis of rates, risk factors, and pathogens.
ABSTRACT Surgical site infection following correction of pediatric scoliosis is well described. However, we are aware of no recent multicenter study describing the rates of surgical site infection, and associated pathogens, among patients with different etiologies for scoliosis.
A multicenter, retrospective review of surgical site infections among pediatric patients undergoing spinal instrumentation to correct scoliosis was performed at three children's hospitals in the United States. Study subjects included all patients undergoing posterior spinal instrumentation from January 2006 to December 2008. Surgical site infections were defined according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Healthcare Safety Network case definition, with infections occurring within one year after surgery.
Following the analysis of 1347 procedures performed in 946 patients, surgical site infection rates varied among procedures performed in patients with different scoliosis etiologies. Procedures performed in patients with neuromuscular scoliosis had the highest surgical site infection rates (9.2%), followed by those performed in patients with syndromic scoliosis (8.8%), those performed in patients with other scoliosis (8.4%), those performed in patients with congenital scoliosis (3.9%), and those performed in patients with idiopathic scoliosis (2.6%). Surgical site infection rates varied among procedures in patients undergoing primary spinal arthrodesis based on etiology, ranging from 1.2% (95% confidence interval, 0.1% to 1.3%) in patients with idiopathic scoliosis to 13.1% (95% confidence interval, 8.4% to 17.8%) in patients with neuromuscular scoliosis. Surgical site infection rates following primary and revision procedures were similar among patients with different etiologies. In distraction-based growing constructs, rates were significantly lower for lengthening procedures than for revision procedures (p = 0.012). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that non-idiopathic scoliosis and extension of instrumentation to the pelvis were risk factors for surgical site infections. The three most common pathogens were Staphylococcus aureus (25.0% [95% confidence interval, 17.8% to 32.2%]), coagulase-negative staphylococci (17.1% [95% confidence interval, 10.9% to 23.3%]), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10.7% [95% confidence interval, 5.6% to 15.8%]). Overall, 46.5% (95% confidence interval, 35.5% to 57.5%) of surgical site infections contained at least one gram-negative organism; 97.0% (95% confidence interval, 90.8% to 100.0%) of these infections were in patients with non-idiopathic scoliosis.
Surgical site infection rates were significantly higher following procedures in patients with non-idiopathic scoliosis (p < 0.001). Lengthening procedures had the lowest rate of surgical site infection among patients with early onset scoliosis who had undergone instrumentation with growing constructs. Gram-negative pathogens were common and were most common following procedures in patients with non-idiopathic scoliosis. These findings suggest a role for targeted perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent surgical site infection following pediatric scoliosis instrumentation procedures.
Prognostic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
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ABSTRACT: Retrospective review of a prospective cohort. To determine the incidence, risk factors, and causes for 30-day unplanned readmission after pediatric spinal deformity surgery. The government has targeted 30-day readmissions as a quality of care measure. However, few studies have analyzed readmission in pediatric cohorts. A multicenter registry designed to collect pediatric surgical outcomes was queried for patients undergoing spinal deformity surgery in 2012. Patients were divided into groups of those with and without an unplanned readmission within 30 days postoperatively. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to compare the cohorts, and to identify variables associated with readmission. In total, 75 of 1890 pediatric patients undergoing spinal fusion for deformity had an unplanned 30-day readmission (3.96%). Readmissions were highest in the neuromuscular group (6.83%) and lowest in the idiopathic (2.66%) and infantile (1.31%) cohorts, (P < 0.01). The top reasons for readmission included wound complications (73.3%) and gastrointestinal disturbances (13.3%). In the univariate analysis, increasing surgical complexity, particularly fusions to the pelvis and isolated anterior spinal fusions, as well as increasing medical comorbidity burden were each associated with readmission (P < 0.05 for each). In the subsequent multivariate analysis, isolated anterior spinal fusions (odds ratio, 7.65; 95% confidence interval, 1.32-44.3) structural pulmonary abnormalities (odds ratio, 2.53; 95% confidence interval, 1.22-5.23) and an American Society of Anesthesiologists class of 3 or 4 (odds ratio, 2.18; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-4.47) were independently associated with readmission. The overall rate of 30-day unplanned readmissions after pediatric deformity surgery was low, but not insignificant. Surgeons should consider discharge optimization in the at-risk patient cohorts defined here, and should focus on wound complications and gastrointestinal disturbances to minimize readmissions. Quality reporting metrics should incorporate these risk factors to avoid unduly penalizing surgeons who take on complex cases.Level of Evidence: 3.Spine 02/2015; 40(4):238-246. DOI:10.1097/BRS.0000000000000730 · 2.45 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Posterior spinal fusion (PSF) is commonly performed for patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Identifying factors associated with perioperative morbidity and PSF may lead to strategies for reducing the frequency of adverse events (AEs) in patients and total hospital costs.Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 09/2014; 473(1). DOI:10.1007/s11999-014-3911-4 · 2.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Object Quality improvement methods are being implemented in various areas of medicine. In an effort to reduce the complex (instrumented) spine infection rate in pediatric patients, a standardized protocol was developed and implemented at an institution with a high case volume of instrumented spine fusion procedures in the pediatric age group. Methods Members of the Texas Children's Hospital Spine Study Group developed the protocol incrementally by using the current literature and prior institutional experience until consensus was obtained. The protocol was prospectively applied to all children undergoing complex spine surgery starting August 21, 2012. Acute infections were defined as positive wound cultures within 12 weeks of surgery, defined in alignment with current hospital infection control criteria. Procedures and infections were measured before and after protocol implementation. This protocol received full review and approval of the Baylor College of Medicine institutional review board. Results Nine spine surgeons performed 267 procedures between August 21, 2012, and September 30, 2013. The minimum follow-up was 12 weeks. The annual institutional infection rate prior to the protocol (2007-2011) ranged from 3.4% to 8.9%, with an average of 5.8%. After introducing the protocol, the infection rate decreased to 2.2% (6 infections of 267 cases) (p = 0.0362; absolute risk reduction 3.6%; relative risk 0.41 [95% CI 0.18-0.94]). Overall compliance with data form completion was 63.7%. In 4 of the 6 cases of infection, noncompliance with completion of the data collection form was documented; moreover, 2 of the 4 spine surgeons whose patients experienced infections had the lowest compliance rates in the study group. Conclusions The standardized protocol for complex spine surgery significantly reduced surgical site infection at the authors' institution. The overall compliance with entry into the protocol was good. Identification of factors associated with post-spine surgery wound infection will allow further protocol refinement in the future.Journal of Neurosurgery Pediatrics 06/2014; DOI:10.3171/2014.5.PEDS1448 · 1.37 Impact Factor