RSK3/4 mediate resistance to PI3K pathway inhibitors in breast cancer

The Journal of clinical investigation (Impact Factor: 13.77). 05/2013; 123(6). DOI: 10.1172/JCI66343
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The PI3K signaling pathway regulates diverse cellular processes, including proliferation, survival, and metabolism, and is aberrantly activated in human cancer. As such, numerous compounds targeting the PI3K pathway are currently being clinically evaluated for the treatment of cancer, and several have shown some early indications of efficacy in breast cancer. However, resistance against these agents, both de novo and acquired, may ultimately limit the efficacy of these compounds. Here, we have taken a systematic functional approach to uncovering potential mechanisms of resistance to PI3K inhibitors and have identified several genes whose expression promotes survival under conditions of PI3K/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/mTOR) blockade, including the ribosomal S6 kinases RPS6KA2 (RSK3) and RPS6KA6 (RSK4). We demonstrate that overexpression of RSK3 or RSK4 supports proliferation upon PI3K inhibition both in vitro and in vivo, in part through the attenuation of the apoptotic response and upregulation of protein translation. Notably, the addition of MEK- or RSK-specific inhibitors can overcome these resistance phenotypes, both in breast cancer cell lines and patient-derived xenograft models with elevated levels of RSK activity. These observations provide a strong rationale for the combined use of RSK and PI3K pathway inhibitors to elicit favorable responses in breast cancer patients with activated RSK.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Over the past decade, tremendous progress in high-throughput small molecule-screening methods has facilitated the rapid expansion of phenotype-based data. Parallel advances in genomic characterization methods have complemented these efforts by providing a growing list of annotated cell line features. Together, these developments have paved the way for feature-based identification of novel, exploitable cellular dependencies, subsequently expanding our therapeutic toolkit in cancer and other diseases. Here, we provide an overview of the evolution of phenotypic small-molecule profiling and discuss the most significant and recent profiling and analytical efforts, their impact on the field, and their clinical ramifications. We additionally provide a perspective for future developments in phenotypic profiling efforts guided by genomic science. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Trends in Genetics 12/2014; 31(1). DOI:10.1016/j.tig.2014.11.002 · 11.60 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling network is a master regulator of processes that contribute to tumorigenesis and tumor maintenance. The PI3K pathway also plays a critical role in driving resistance to diverse anti-cancer therapies. This review article focuses on mechanisms by which the PI3K pathway contributes to therapy resistance in cancer, and highlights potential combination therapy strategies to circumvent resistance driven by PI3K signaling. In addition, resistance mechanisms that limit the clinical efficacy of small molecule inhibitors of the PI3K pathway are discussed.
    02/2015; 7. DOI:10.12703/P7-13
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The two major melanoma histologic subtypes, superficial spreading and nodular melanomas, differ in their speed of dermal invasion but converge biologically once they invade and metastasize. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that distinct molecular alterations arising in primary melanoma cells might persist as these tumors progress to invasion and metastasis. Ribosomal protein S6 kinase, 90 kDa, polypeptide 1 (RSK1; official name RPS6KA1) was significantly hyperactivated in human melanoma lines and metastatic tissues derived from nodular compared with superficial spreading melanoma. RSK1 was constitutively phosphorylated at Ser-380 in nodular but not superficial spreading melanoma and did not directly correlate with BRAF or MEK activation. Nodular melanoma cells were more sensitive to RSK1 inhibition using siRNA and the pharmacological inhibitor BI-D1870 compared with superficial spreading cells. Gene expression microarray analyses revealed that RSK1 orchestrated a program of gene expression that promoted cell motility and invasion. Differential overexpression of the prometastatic matrix metalloproteinase 8 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 in metastatic nodular compared with metastatic superficial spreading melanoma was observed. Finally, using an in vivo zebrafish model, constitutive RSK1 activation increased melanoma invasion. Together, these data reveal a novel role for activated RSK1 in the progression of nodular melanoma and suggest that melanoma originating from different histologic subtypes may be biologically distinct and that these differences are maintained as the tumors invade and metastasize. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    American Journal Of Pathology 01/2015; 185(3). DOI:10.1016/j.ajpath.2014.11.021 · 4.60 Impact Factor