Preschool vision screening in primary care pediatric practice

Eye Physicians of Central Florida, Maitland, FL.
Public Health Reports (Impact Factor: 1.55). 05/2013; 128(3):189-97.
Source: PubMed


We determined the efficacy of pediatric-based preschool vision screening, as knowledge of vision screening effectiveness in primary care pediatrics is incomplete.
Pediatricians and staff at nine primary care pediatric practices were trained in vision screening, and practices screened children aged 3-5 years from May 2007 through July 2008. Children failing or considered untestable were referred for pediatric ophthalmology examinations. We determined rates of testability, failure, referral, and ophthalmologic examination completion, as well as positive predictive values (PPVs) of screening failure and untestability. We also surveyed practices to assess the ease and accuracy of preschool vision screening.
Of 2,933 children screened, 93 (3.2%) failed the vision screening and 349 (11.9%) were untestable. Untestability was highest (27.1%) among 3-year-olds. The PPV for failing any aspect of the vision screening was 66.7%; for children aged 3, 4, and 5 years, the PPVs for failing were 30.0%, 77.8%, and 87.5%, respectively. However, only 38.7% of children who failed the vision screening received ophthalmologic examinations, despite multiple follow-up attempts. Pediatricians rated the ease and accuracy of screening 3-year-old children lower than for screening older children.
Visual acuity-based screening had good PPV for vision loss for 4- and 5-year-old children but was less successful for 3-year-olds. Rates of referral and ophthalmologic examination completion were low, especially among children from low-income families.

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    ABSTRACT: We developed and validated the Jaeb Visual Acuity Screener (JVAS), a computerized visual acuity-based screening program for children that employs a rapid, age-specific, standardized algorithm for vision screening in the medical home that is available for download at no cost. A total of 175 children aged 3 to <8 (median, 6) years were screened with the JVAS before undergoing a complete eye examination (gold standard). The JVAS presented 2 large single surround optotypes (20/100 and 20/80) and then 5 optotypes at a predetermined, age-specific normal threshold. Failure on the gold standard examination was determined using recently published referral criteria and published visual acuity norms for age. We evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of the JVAS for detecting reduced visual acuity, amblyopia, and amblyopia risk factors. JVAS pass/fail paradigms evaluated were inability to identify 3 of 4, 3 of 5, and 4 of 5 age-appropriate optotype presentations. Screening testability for the JVAS was high, at 100%. Sensitivity of the JVAS ranged from 88% to 91%, and specificity from 73% to 86%, with positive predictive value ranging from 66% to 79% and negative predictive value from 92% to 93% (ranges reflect different pass/fail paradigms). The new JVAS provides an effective and practical method for screening 3- to 7-year-olds using any Windows-based computer. Providing the JVAS free-of-charge to pediatricians and school systems would standardize currently fragmented visual acuity-based screening practices. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of AAPOS: the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus / American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus 04/2015; 19(2):157-62. DOI:10.1016/j.jaapos.2015.01.011 · 1.00 Impact Factor