[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Employment arrangements in which the worker has a nontraditional relationship with the work-site employer have come to be grouped together in recent years as “contingent” work. Throughout the 1970s and 1980s, as employers sought more flexibility, contingent employment arrangements became more common in the United States. From 1969 to 1993, the number of part-time workers nearly doubled, representing a quarter of all growth in the national workforce.1 From 1982 to 1990, employment in temporary agencies increased 10 times faster than did the workforce as a whole.2 During the 1980s, the use of independent contractors in coal mining and of contract company workers in agriculture doubled.3
JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 02/2008; 299(4):448-50. DOI:10.1001/jama.299.4.448 · 30.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Employers are beginning to realize that they face a nearly invisible but significant drain on productivity: presenteeism, the problem of workers' being on the job but, because of illness or other medical conditions, not fully functioning. By some estimates, the phenomenon costs U.S. companies over 150 billion dollars a year--much more than absenteeism does. Yet it's harder to identify. You know when someone doesn't show up for work, but you often can't tell when, or how much, poor health hurts on-the-job performance. Many of the health problems that result in presenteeism are relatively benign. Research in this emerging area of study focuses on such chronic or episodic ailments as seasonal allergies, asthma, headaches, depression, back pain, arthritis, and gastrointestinal disorders. The fact is, when people don't feel good, they simply don't perform at their best. Employees who suffer from depression may be fatigued and irritable--and, therefore, less able to work effectively with others. Those with migraine headaches who experience blurred vision and sensitivity to light, not to mention acute pain, probably have a hard time staring at a computer screen all day. A number of companies are making a serious effort to determine the prevalence of illnesses and other medical conditions that undermine job performance, calculate the related drop in productivity, and find cost-effective ways to combat that loss. Indeed, researchers have discovered that presenteeism-related declines in productivity sometimes can be more than offset by relatively small investments in screening, treatment, and education. So organizations may find that it pays to make targeted investments in employees' health care--by covering the cost of allergy medication, for instance, or therapy for depression.
Harvard business review 11/2004; 82(10):49-58, 155. · 1.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BackgroundA significant and growing number of people work long hours. Research examining impacts is limited, but raises concerns about risks to the worker, the family, the employer, and the community. The purpose of this report, which is authored by the National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA) Long Work Hours Team, is to motivate and guide future research by proposing a framework for studying long work hours and discussing research gaps.Methods
The NORA Long Work Hours Team examined research reports and literature reviews, and gathered input from a conference on long work hours organized by the Team and faculty from University of Maryland.Results and ConclusionA framework is proposed for long work hours, including determinants, outcomes, and moderating factors of long work hours, suggesting that studies need to include more clear and complete descriptions of work schedules, worker characteristics, and the work environment, and need to consider a wider range of possible health, safety, social and economic outcomes for workers, families, employers, and the community. Additional studies are needed on vulnerable employee groups and those critical to public safety. More studies are also needed to develop interventions and test their effectiveness. Am. J. Ind. Med. 2006. Published 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine 11/2006; 49(11):930 - 942. DOI:10.1002/ajim.20373 · 1.59 Impact Factor
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