Interventions for treating pain and disability in adults with complex regional pain syndrome. Overview (PROTOCOL)

Centre for Research in Rehabilitation, School of Health Sciences and Social Care, Brunel University, Kingston Lane, Uxbridge, Middlesex, UK, UB8 3PH.
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) (Impact Factor: 6.03). 04/2013; 4(4):CD009416. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD009416.pub2
Source: PubMed


There is currently no strong consensus regarding the optimal management of complex regional pain syndrome although a multitude of interventions have been described and are commonly used.
To summarise the evidence from Cochrane and non-Cochrane systematic reviews of the effectiveness of any therapeutic intervention used to reduce pain, disability or both in adults with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS).
We identified Cochrane reviews and non-Cochrane reviews through a systematic search of the following databases: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, CINAHL, LILACS and PEDro. We included non-Cochrane systematic reviews where they contained evidence not covered by identified Cochrane reviews. The methodological quality of reviews was assessed using the AMSTAR tool.We extracted data for the primary outcomes pain, disability and adverse events, and the secondary outcomes of quality of life, emotional well being and participants' ratings of satisfaction or improvement. Only evidence arising from randomised controlled trials was considered. We used the GRADE system to assess the quality of evidence.
We included six Cochrane reviews and 13 non-Cochrane systematic reviews. Cochrane reviews demonstrated better methodological quality than non-Cochrane reviews. Trials were typically small and the quality variable.There is moderate quality evidence that intravenous regional blockade with guanethidine is not effective in CRPS and that the procedure appears to be associated with the risk of significant adverse events.There is low quality evidence that bisphosphonates, calcitonin or a daily course of intravenous ketamine may be effective for pain when compared with placebo; graded motor imagery may be effective for pain and function when compared with usual care; and that mirror therapy may be effective for pain in post-stroke CRPS compared with a 'covered mirror' control. This evidence should be interpreted with caution. There is low quality evidence that local anaesthetic sympathetic blockade is not effective. Low quality evidence suggests that physiotherapy or occupational therapy are associated with small positive effects that are unlikely to be clinically important at one year follow up when compared with a social work passive attention control.For a wide range of other interventions, there is either no evidence or very low quality evidence available from which no conclusions should be drawn.
There is a critical lack of high quality evidence for the effectiveness of most therapies for CRPS. Until further larger trials are undertaken, formulating an evidence-based approach to managing CRPS will remain difficult.

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    • "Supporting Information Appendix S4 lists the papers we were unable to access in full text. The 104 papers were classified according to the three core elements of CRPS treatment described by O'Connell et al. (O'Connell et al., 2013); pain management (n = 82), rehabilitation (n = 22) and psychological therapy (n = 0). The clinical trials identified incorporated a broad range of methodologies including randomized controlled trials (RCT), open-label studies, observational and pilot studies. "
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    ABSTRACT: Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic pain condition, often triggered by trauma to a limb and characterized by sensory, motor, autonomic and trophic changes within the affected limb. Due to the multi-faceted nature of the condition there are a wide range of potential health outcome measures for use within CRPS related clinical trials. This aim of this systematic literature review was to identify which patient or health professional questionnaire format outcome measures have been used in CRPS specific clinical trials, and which of these have been developed specifically for use in CRPS populations. Information gained from this review will inform an international consortium project to define a Core Outcome measurement set for CRPS Clinical trials. The electronic databases EMBASE, Medline, PsycInfo, CINAHL and LILACS were systematically searched from January 2000 until April 2014. One hundred and four full text papers were obtained with 68 questionnaire outcome measures identified. Five of these outcome measures were validated for CRPS. Of those outcome measures used since 2000, those addressing physical functioning were most prevalent. Currently, CRPS clinical trials use a wide range of outcome measures making the potential to synthesize evidence problematic. There is no internationally agreed core measurement set. This diversity of outcome measures demonstrates a clear need for the development of a core measurement set to be used in CRPS clinical trials. © 2015 European Pain Federation - EFIC®
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