[Smoking and respiratory diseases]

Department of Pulmonary Medicine and Clinical Immunology, Dokkyo Medical University School of Medicine.
Nippon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine 03/2013; 71(3):416-20.
Source: PubMed


Since lung is a directly affected organ by cigarette smoking, various respiratory diseases including lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, interstitial lung diseases, bronchial asthma, are caused and worsen by cigarette smoking not only in case of active smoking but also in case of passive smoking. A lot of carcinogen in cigarette smoke causes lung cancer through the DNA damage. Oxidants in cigarette smoke induce airway inflammation and tissue injury. Various kinds of protease including neutrophil elastase and matrix metalloproteinase cause emphysema. Meanwhile, inflammation also induces lung fibrosis. Cigarette smoking is a risk factor for the development of asthmas and is associated with decreased asthma control and increased risk of mortality and exacerbations.

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    ABSTRACT: Sleep apnea (SA) is characterized by apnea during sleep and is associated with cardiovascular diseases and an increase in all-cause mortality. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global health problem that has placed a substantial burden on healthcare resources. However, the relationship between SA and the incidence of CKD is not clear. This study aimed to determine whether SA is an independent risk factor for the development of CKD. Retrospective cohort study. National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan. A total of 4,674 adult patients (age ≥ 30 y) in whom SA was newly diagnosed from 2000 to 2010 were included, together with 23,370 non-SA patients as the comparison group. The two groups were frequency-matched for sex, age, and year of receiving medical service. Each individual was followed until 2011. N/A. These two groups were monitored and observed for the occurrence of CKD. Patients with SA experienced a 1.94-fold increase (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.52-2.46; P < 0.001) in the incidence of CKD, which was independent of sex, age, and comorbid medical conditions. Additionally, they showed a 2.2-fold increase (95% CI, 1.31-3.69; P < 0.01) in the incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Patients with SA are at increased risk for CKD and ESRD compared with the general population. As such, screening renal function and treatment of CKD is an important issue in patients with SA. © 2014 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.
    Sleep 11/2014; 38(2). DOI:10.5665/sleep.4400 · 4.59 Impact Factor