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Sağlık kurumlarında kalite güvencesi ve akreditasyon: Mikrobiyoloji laboratuvarları örneği

Hacettepe Tıp Dergisi 01/2008; 39(1):9-15.
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    ABSTRACT: The Institute of Medicine (IOM) report (1999) stated that the prevalence of medical errors is high in today's health care system. Some specialties in health care are more risky than others. A varying blunder/error rate of 0.1-9.3% in clinical diagnostic laboratories has been reported in the literature. Many of these errors occur in the preanalytical and postanalytical phases of testing. It has been suggested that the errors occurring in clinical diagnostic laboratories are smaller in number than those occurring elsewhere in a hospital setting. However, given the quantum of laboratory tests used in health care, even this small rate may reflect a large number of errors. The surgical specialties, emergency rooms, and intensive care units have been previously identified as areas of risk for patient safety. Though the nature of work in these specialties and their interdependence on clinical diagnostic laboratories presents abundant opportunities for error-generating behavior, many of these errors may be preventable. Appropriate attention to system factors involved in these errors and designing intelligent system approaches may help control and eliminate many of these errors in health care.
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    ABSTRACT: Quality assurance (QA) is the total process whereby the quality of laboratory reports can be guaranteed. The term quality control covers that part of QA, which primarily concerns the control of errors in the performance of tests and verification of test results. All materials, equipment and procedures must be adequately controlled. Culture media must be tested for sterility and performance. Each laboratory must have standard operating procedures (SOPs). QA of pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical stages of microbiological procedures should be incorporated in SOPs. The laboratory must be well lit with dust-free air-conditioned environment. Environmental conditions should be monitored. Supervisory and technical personnel should be well qualified. The laboratory should participate in external and internal quality assurance schemes.
    Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology 01/2004; 22(2):81-6. · 0.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Quality management in clinical microbiology began in the 1960s. Both government and professional societies introduced programs for proficiency testing and laboratory inspection and accreditation. Many laboratory scientists and pathologists were independently active and creative in expanding efforts to monitor and improve practices. The initial emphasis was placed on intralaboratory process. Later, attention was shifted to physician ordering, specimen collection, reporting, and use of information. Quality management in the laboratory depends in large part on the monitoring of indicators that provide some evidence of how laboratory resources are being used and how the information benefits patient care. Continuous quality improvement should be introduced. This consists of a more thorough assessment of doing the right things versus the wrong things in terms of customer demand and satisfaction and studying the cumulative effect of error when responsibility is passed from one person to another. Prevention of error is accomplished more through effective training and continuing education than through surveillance. Also, this system will force more conscious attention to meeting the expectations of the many customers that must be satisfied by laboratory services, including patients, physicians, third-party payers, and managed-care organizations.
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May 26, 2014