Computerized Tomography for Detecting Perivesical Infiltration and Lymph Node Metastasis in Invasive Bladder Carcinoma
ABSTRACT Computerized tomography (CT) is used in the preoperative staging of invasive bladder carcinoma. We evaluated the role of CT for detecting perivesical invasion and lymph node metastases in patients who had undergone radical cystectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy for invasive bladder carcinoma.
We retrospectively analyzed the clinical and pathological data of 100 patients with invasive bladder carcinoma who had undergone radical cystectomy. The preoperative CT images were reevaluated and interpreted by one uroradiologist blinded to the final pathological results for evidence of extravesical tumor extension or lymph node metastases.
Of the 100 patients, CT showed extravesical tumor involvement in 57. Of these 57 cases, 22 displayed no evidence of extravesical tumor involvement in the final pathological analysis. In 6 cases, although perivesical invasion was identified in the final pathological analysis, preoperative CT showed no evidence of extravesical tumor involvement. Regarding extravesical tumor spread, the differences between CT and pathological stages were statistically significant (p < 0.001). CT was highly suggestive of lymph node metastases in 9 cases, but only 4 were pathologically confirmed. On the other hand, in 9 patients pelvic lymph node metastasis were pathologically diagnosed, but there was no evidence of lymphadenopathy on CT. Regarding lymph node involvement, there was moderate concordance between CT and pathological findings (p = 0.003, kappa = 0.29 +/- 0.14).
CT has limited accuracy in detecting perivesical infiltration and lymph node metastasis in invasive bladder carcinoma. The information provided by CT is insufficient and we urgently need more reliable staging techniques.
Conference Paper: An overview of the RoboCup physical agent challenge: phase I[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate a bladder preservation strategy in patients with either muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) or development of MIBC cancer due to progression of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). Between October 1982 and March 1998, 48 patients (mean age 61 years, range 45-75) with MIBC (T2a-b and T3a) were treated using transurethral resection followed by three cycles of systemic chemotherapy. 42 patients (87.5%) had primary MIBC and 6 (12.5%) had MIBC subsequent to NMIBC. After chemotherapy, 39 patients (81.25%) achieved complete remission and 4 (8.3%) partial remission. With a median follow-up of 98.5 months (13-246), the overall survival of the 48 patients was 62.6%. The cancer-specific survival (CSS) of the 39 patients with complete remission was 80.8%. Among the 39 patients with complete remission, 19 had invasive recurrence during follow-up with a CSS of 53.2%; by comparison, among patients with preserved bladders, CSS was 72.1% (p = 0.046). Predictive factors analysed were age, sex, tumour size >3 cm, grade, associated carcinoma in situ (CIS), number of tumours and number of previous recurrences. In multivariate analysis only tumour size and CIS were significant predictive factors for progression after preservation. Of the 6 patients with MIBC after NMIBC, 3 (50%) had no remission and underwent cystectomy and 15 patients (38.6%) had NMIBC recurrences during follow-up. CIS and high-grade tumours were treated with bacillus Calmette-Guérin. A bladder preservation rate of 81% and a CSS rate of 89% were obtained in the group with NMIBC recurrences. Conservative management of MIBC cancer is a feasible alternative to cystectomy in selected cases. Patients with MIBC after progression of primary NMIBC are not good candidates for a bladder preservation approach. NMIBC recurrences after bladder preservation in patients with MIBC respond to transurethral resection and bacillus Calmette-Guérin instillations.Urologia Internationalis 10/2010; 85(3):281-6. DOI:10.1159/000316076 · 1.43 Impact Factor