The Contribution of Endogenous and Exogenous Factors to Male Alopecia: A Study of Identical Twins
ABSTRACT : The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential contribution of environmental factors and testosterone on male alopecia.
: Ninety-two identical male twins were recruited from 2009 to 2011. A comprehensive questionnaire was completed followed by the acquisition of sputum samples for testosterone analysis and standardized digital photography. Frontal, temporal, and vertex hair loss was assessed from these photographs. Hair loss was then correlated with survey responses and testosterone levels between twin pairs. Two independent, blinded observers also rated the photographs for hair thinning.
: Increased smoking duration (p < 0.001) and the presence of dandruff (p = 0.028) were significantly associated with increased frontal hair loss. Increased exercise duration (p = 0.002), consumption of more than four alcoholic drinks per week (p = 0.042), and increased money spent on hair loss products (p = 0.050) were all associated with increased temporal hair loss. Daily hat use (p = 0.050), higher body mass index (p = 0.012), and higher testosterone levels (p = 0.040) were associated with decreased temporal hair loss. Factors that were significantly associated with increased vertex hair loss included abstinence from alcohol consumption (p = 0.030), consumption of more than four alcoholic drinks per week (p = 0.004), increased smoking duration (p = 0.047), increased exercise duration (p = 0.050), and increased stress duration (p = 0.010). Lower body mass index, more children, increased caffeine consumption, history of skin disease, and abstinence from alcohol were significantly associated with increased hair thinning scores (p < 0.05).
: This study offers substantial evidence that exogenous factors may have a clinically significant impact on hair loss.
: Risk, III.
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ABSTRACT: The predominant cultivable microbiota of periodontosis lesions was studied in 5 patients using a specially designed anaerobic sampling device and current anaerobic methodology. Two samples from the apical portion of periodontosis lesions and one sample from clinically normal sites were taken from each patient. The results indicated that samples obtained from pocket sites consisted of significantly increased proportions of Gram negative anaerobic rods when compared to a predominantly Gram positive flora in the control sites. Many of these organisms could not be classified. An additional 9 periodontosis patients were sampled and it was determined that groups of Gram negative anaerobic rods from similar to the first 5 patients were isolated. These organisms were differentiated into 5 groups based on morphologic, cultural, and biochemical characteristics.Journal of Periodontal Research 04/1977; 12(2):120-8. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0765.1977.tb00114.x · 2.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In obese men, sex hormone-binding globulin levels (SHBG) as well as total plasma testosterone (T) levels are decreased. Data concerning the levels of nonprotein-bound testosterone (FT) are discordant, with some researchers reporting normal levels, and other reporting decreased levels. The latter imply an impairment of the feedback regulation mechanism of FT levels. We investigated whether an eventual decrease in FT levels and, hence, functional impairment of the gonadostat might occur only at a more severe degree of obesity than that required for a decrease in SHBG and total T levels. We, therefore, determined androgen and precursor levels in three groups of male subjects: nonobese controls [body mass index (BMI), G (kg)/L2 (m) < 26; n = 70]; moderately (BMI, 30-35; n = 18), and severely (BMI, > 40; n = 22) obese men, respectively. In a subgroup of these controls, moderately and severely obese subjects, respectively, we studied LH levels as well as LH pulsatility. Moreover, as a decrease in FT levels might affect the metabolic pattern of the androgens and, more specifically, 5 alpha-reductase activity, we determined the plasma levels of the major 5 alpha-reduced metabolites, androstanediol glucuronide and androsterone glucuronide (AG), as well as the urinary excretion of the major 5 alpha (androsterone glucuronide) and the major 5 beta (etiocholanolone glucuronide) metabolite of the androgens. In moderately obese men, T levels were decreased, which was the consequence of the decreased SHBG-binding capacity. FT levels, however, were normal as were LH levels and both pulse amplitude and frequency of LH pulses, suggesting a normal hypothalamic control of LH secretion. In severely obese men (BMI, > 40), total T, FT, and LH levels as well as LH pulse amplitude were decreased, indicating a functional impairment of the gonadostat. Even in massively obese subjects with decreased FT levels, androgen metabolism and 5 alpha-reductase activity appeared to be normal, as suggested by similar androstanediol glucuronide and AG levels, determined by RIA or calculated from the conversion rates of precursors obtained in nonobese subjects. This was confirmed by the similar AG/eticholanolone glucuronide ratios in obese and nonobese men.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 10/1994; 79(4):997-1000. DOI:10.1210/jc.79.4.997 · 6.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study was performed to determine the acute effect of cigarette smoking on proximal and distal epicardial conduit and coronary resistance vessels. Cigarette smoking causes constriction of epicardial arteries and a decrease in coronary blood flow in patients with coronary artery disease, despite an increase in myocardial oxygen demand. The role of changes in resistance vessel tone in the acute coronary hemodynamic effect of smoking has not been examined. Twenty-four long-term smokers were studied during cardiac catheterization after vasoactive medications had been discontinued. The effect of smoking one cigarette 10 to 15 mm long on proximal and distal conduit vessel segments was assessed before and immediately after smoking and at 5, 15 and 30 min after smoking (n = 8). To determine the effect of smoking on resistance vessels, coronary flow velocity was measured in a nonobstructed artery with a 3F intracoronary Doppler catheter before and for 5 min after smoking (n = 8). Eight patients were studied without smoking to control for spontaneous changes in conduit arterial diameter (n = 5) and resistance vessel tone (n = 3). The average diameter of proximal coronary artery segments decreased from 2.56 +/- 0.12 mm (mean +/- SEM) before smoking to 2.41 +/- 0.09 mm 5 min after smoking (-5 +/- 2%, p < 0.05). Distal coronary diameter decreased from 1.51 +/- 0.07 to 1.39 +/- 0.06 mm (-8 +/- 2%, p < 0.01). Marked focal vasoconstriction after smoking was observed in two patients. Coronary diameter returned to baseline by 30 min after smoking. There was no change in vessel diameter in control patients. Despite a significant increase in the heart rate-mean arterial pressure product, coronary flow velocity decreased by 7 +/- 4% (p < 0.05) and coronary vascular resistance increased by 21 +/- 4% (p < 0.01) 5 min after smoking. There was no change in these variables in the control subjects. Smoking causes immediate constriction of proximal and distal epicardial coronary arteries and an increase in coronary resistance vessel tone, despite an increase in myocardial oxygen demand. These acute coronary hemodynamic effects may contribute to the adverse cardiovascular consequences of cigarette smoking.Journal of the American College of Cardiology 10/1993; 22(3):642-7. DOI:10.1016/0735-1097(93)90170-6 · 15.34 Impact Factor