Nomothetic and Idiographic Symptom Change Trajectories in Acute-Phase Cognitive Therapy for Recurrent Depression
ABSTRACT Objective: We tested nomothetic and idiographic convergence and change in 3 symptom measures during acute-phase cognitive therapy (CT) for depression and compared outcomes among patients showing different change patterns. Method: Outpatients (N = 362; 69% women; 85% White; age M = 43 years) with recurrent major depressive disorder according to criteria in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) completed the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (Hamilton, 1960), Beck Depression Inventory (Beck, Ward, Mendelson, Mock, & Erbaugh, 1961), and Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology-Self-Report (Rush, Gullion, Basco, Jarrett, & Trivedi, 1996) on 14 occasions as well as pre/post-CT measures of social-interpersonal functioning and negative cognitive content. Results: The 3 symptom measures marked the same severity and change constructs, and we offer improved formulas for intermeasure score conversions via their common factor. Pre/post-CT symptom reductions were large (ds = 1.71-1.92), and nomothetic symptom curves were log-linear (larger improvements earlier and smaller improvements later in CT). Nonetheless, only 30% of individual patients showed clear log-linear changes, whereas other patients showed linear (e.g., steady decreases; 20%), 1-step (e.g., a quick drop; 16%), and unclassified (34%) patterns. Log-linear, linear, and 1-step patients were generally similar to one another and superior to unclassified patients post-CT in symptom levels, response and stable remission rates, social-interpersonal functioning, and cognitive content (median d = 0.69). Conclusions: Reaching a low-symptom "destination" at the end of CT via any coherent "path" is more important in the short term than which path patients take. We discuss implications for theories of change, clinical monitoring of individuals' progress in CT, and the need to investigate long-term outcomes of patients with differing patterns of symptom change. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
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ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE Strategies to improve the course of recurrent major depressive disorder have great public health relevance. To reduce the risk of relapse/recurrence after acute phase cognitive therapy (CT), a continuation phase model of therapy may improve outcomes. OBJECTIVES To test the efficacy of continuation phase CT (C-CT) and fluoxetine for relapse prevention in a pill placebo (PBO)-controlled randomized trial and compare the durability of prophylaxis after discontinuation of treatments. DESIGN A sequential, 3-stage design with an acute phase (all patients received 12 weeks of CT); 8-month experimental phase (responders at higher risk were randomized to C-CT, fluoxetine, or PBO); and 24 months of longitudinal, posttreatment follow-up. SETTING Two university-based specialty clinics. PATIENTS A total of 523 adults with recurrent major depressive disorder began acute phase CT, of which 241 higher-risk responders were randomized and 181 subsequently entered the follow-up. INTERVENTIONS Cognitive therapy responders at higher risk for relapse were randomized to receive 8 months of C-CT (n = 86), fluoxetine (n = 86), or PBO (n = 69). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Survival analyses of relapse/recurrence rates, as determined by blinded evaluators using DSM-IV criteria and the Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation. RESULTS As predicted, the C-CT or fluoxetine groups were significantly less likely to relapse than the PBO group across 8 months. Relapse/recurrence rates for C-CT and fluoxetine were nearly identical during the 8 months of treatment, although C-CT patients were more likely to accept randomization, stayed in treatment longer, and attended more sessions than those in the fluoxetine and PBO groups. Contrary to prediction, relapse/recurrence rates following the discontinuation of C-CT and fluoxetine did not differ. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Relapse risk was reduced by both C-CT and fluoxetine in an enriched randomization sampling only CT responders. The preventive effects of C-CT were not significantly more durable than those of fluoxetine after treatment was stopped, suggesting that some higher-risk patients may require alternate longer-term interventions. TRIAL REGISTRATION clinicaltrials.gov Identifiers: NCT00118404, NCT00183664, and NCT00218764.JAMA Psychiatry 09/2013; 70(11). DOI:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2013.1969 · 12.01 Impact Factor